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heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:35 AM
by Bill Roberts - This drug is unique (so far as I know) in that 5a -reductase, the enzyme which converts testosterone to the more-potent DHT, actually converts nandrolone to a less-potent compound. Therefore this AAS is somewhat deactivated in the skin, scalp, and prostate, and these tissues experience an effectively-lower androgen level than the rest of the body. Therefore, for the same amount of activity as another drug at the androgen receptors (ARs) in muscle tissue, Deca gives less activity in the scalp, skin, and prostate. Thus, it is the best choice for those particularly concerned with these things.


Its effectiveness at the androgen receptor of muscle tissue is superior to that of testosterone: it binds better. Yet, it gives only about half the muscle-building results per milligram. This I think is a result of its being less effective or entirely ineffective in non-AR-mediated mechanisms for muscle growth.


It also appears less effective or entirely ineffective in activity on nerve cells, certainly on the nerve cells responsible for erectile function. Use of Deca as the sole AAS often results in complete inability to perform sexually.


These problems can be solved by combining with a drug that does supply the missing activity: e.g. testosterone.


Nandrolone is proven to be a progestin. This fact is of clear importance in bodybuilding, because while moderate Deca-only use actually lowers estrogen levels as a consequence of reducing natural testosterone levels and thus allowing the aromatase enzyme less substrate to work with, Deca nonetheless can cause gyno in some individuals. Furthermore, just as progesterone will to a point increase sex drive in women, and then often decrease it as levels get too high, high levels of progestogenic steroids can kill sex drive in male bodybuilders, though there is a great deal of individual variability as to what is too much.


Incidentally, this progestogenic activity also inhibits LH production, and contrary to common belief, even small amounts of Deca are quite inhibitory, approximately as much so as the same amount of testosterone.


To some extent, nandrolone aromatizes to estrogen, and it does not appear that this can be entirely blocked by use of aromatase inhibitors – indeed, aromatase may not be involved at all in this process (there is no evidence in humans that such occurs) with the enzyme CYP 2C11 being in my opinion the more likely candidate for this activity. In any case, Cytadren, an aromatase inhibitor, has not been found effective in avoiding aromatization of nandrolone.


The drug is moderately effective at doses of 400 mg/week. The long half-life of nandrolone decanoate makes it unsuited to short alternating cycles, but suitable for more traditional cycles, with a built-in self-tapering effect in the weeks following the last injection.



Nandrolone decanoate is the chemical name of active ingredient in Deca Durabolin. Deca Durabolin is a registered trademark of Organon Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.




Read more from this MESO-Rx article at: Nandrolone Decanoate (Deca Durabolin) Profile (http://www.mesomorphosis.com/steroid-profiles/deca-durabolin.htm#ixzz19ESbtBR9)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:36 AM
Collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women during therapy with anabolic steroid or female sex hormones.

Hassager C (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Hassager%20C%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Jensen LT (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Jensen%20LT%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Pødenphant J (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22P%C3%B8denphant%20J%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Riis BJ (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Riis%20BJ%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Christiansen C (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Christiansen%20C%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract).

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

The effect of anabolic steroid therapy and estrogen-progestogen substitution therapy on serum concentration of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), a measure of collagen synthesis, in postmenopausal women was studied in two double-blind studies: (1) 39 women allocated to treatment with either 50 mg nandrolone decanoate as an intramuscular depot or placebo injections every third week for 1 year, and (2) 40 women allocated to receive either 2 mg 17 beta-estradiol plus 1 mg norethisterone acetate daily or placebo tablets for 1 year. Serum PIIINP was measured every 3 months during the study. Anabolic steroid therapy resulted in a more than 50% increase (P less than .001) in serum PIIINP at 3 months, which thereafter decayed but remained significantly increased throughout the study period. Serum PIIINP showed the same pattern during estrogen-progestogen therapy, but to a lesser degree. We conclude that anabolic steroids stimulate type III collagen synthesis in postmenopausal women, while estrogen-progestogen therapy may have such an effect, but only to a lesser degree.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2...?dopt=Abstract (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2233278?dopt=Abstract)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:36 AM
Nandrolone decanoate for men with osteoporosis.

Hamdy RC (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Hamdy%20RC%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Moore SW (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Moore%20SW%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Whalen KE (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Whalen%20KE%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus), Landy C (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term=%22Landy%20C%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus).
James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN USA.
To compare the efficacy and safety of nandrolone decanoate and calcium (NDC) with those of calcium alone (CAL) in men with idiopathic osteoporosis, a 12-month, randomized, prospective, controlled study, was performed in an outpatient clinic. Twenty-one men with idiopathic osteoporosis (as determined by radiological and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry findings) were randomly allocated to either 50 mg nandrolone decanoate intramuscularly (im) weekly and 1,000 mg oral calcium carbonate daily (NDC group) or to 1,000 mg oral calcium carbonate daily (CAL group). Bone densitometry (total body, left femur, and lumbar spine), serum, and urine biochemical parameters were measured at 3-month intervals. In the NDC group, bone mineral density initially increased, reached a plateau, and then decreased to near baseline levels at 12 months. Increases in lean muscle mass mirrored these changes. Free and total testosterone significantly decreased. Hemoglobin increased in all patients in this group. Patients in the CAL group exhibited no significant change in either total body or bone mineral density or biochemical parameters. Thus, nandrolone decanoate, 50 mg im weekly, transiently increases the bone mass of men with idiopathic osteoporosis in this preliminary study. Careful monitoring is necessary.

PMID: 10099043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099043 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10099043)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:37 AM
In Praise of Nandrolone

Written by Jose Antonio, PhD Friday, 06 April 2007

Nandrolone, which is fondly referred to as "Deca" (Deca-Durabolin), has the chemical name 17b-hydroxy-19-nor-4-andro-sten-3-one and is an anabolic steroid (a muscle-building chemical) that's present naturally in very tiny quantities in the human body. It's very similar in structure to the male hormone testosterone and has many of the same effects in terms of increasing muscle mass, without some of the more unwanted side effects such as increased body hair or aggressive behavior.

According to an article published in Newsweek International, by Jerry Adler (April 11 issue), "Anabolic steroids are inherently dangerous, no matter what else the pills may contain." Now anyone with half a brain would know there are few things that are "inherently dangerous" or "inherently safe" in life. Androgens (i.e., anabolic steroids) don't fall into either class, if the truth be told. But like ALL behaviors, there's a risk-benefit tradeoff one must consider. For instance, drinking water is certainly "safe" by any measure of common sense. However, if you drink too much water during a prolonged endurance race under hot conditions, you may suffer from the effects of hyponatremia (sodium levels in your blood become disastrously low) and in very, very rare instances, you can die. Certainly, no one in their right mind would suggest a Congressional hearing is in order. Oh my, what about the kids!?

As such, upon further analysis, reasonable minds can come to only one conclusion about nandrolone and the conclusion is that when nandrolone is used at a moderate dose and treatment duration, it's anabolic with little to no side effects! It's definitely not inherently dangerous.
For instance, the effectiveness of a biweekly regimen of 150 milligrams nandrolone with placebo in HIV-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss was compared to its effects against a Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen of recombinant human (rh)GH. In this placebo-controlled, randomized, 12-week trial, placebo and nandrolone (150 milligrams intramuscularly biweekly) were administered double blind and rhGH (six milligrams subcutaneously daily) was administered in an open-label manner. Participants were HIV-infected men with five to 15 percent weight loss over six months and on stable antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 weeks.

Nandrolone administration was associated with a greater increase in lean body mass (LBM) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan than placebo; however, the change in LBMs with nandrolone was not significantly different from rhGH. Interestingly, rhGH administration was associated with greater loss of whole body fat mass and higher frequency of drug-related adverse effects and treatment discontinuations than nandrolone and placebo and a greater increase in extracellular water than nandrolone. Nandrolone treatment was associated with greater improvements in perception of health than rhGH and sexual function than placebo. Researchers concluded that "nandrolone is superior to placebo and not significantly different from a Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen of rhGH in improving lean body mass in HIV-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss."2 However, the adverse effects were less with the nandrolone. Similar results for nandrolone decanoate therapy were found in women. According to these investigators, nandrolone "may prove to be generally safe and beneficial in reversing weight loss and lean tissue loss in women with HIV infection and other chronic catabolic diseases."3

In another clinical trial, the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) were assessed after a two-year treatment period. Yes, you read it right, two friggin' years!! Sixty-five osteoporotic women older than 70 years were studied. Thirty-two patients received injections of 50 milligrams ND and 33 received placebos every three weeks. All patients received 500 milligrams calcium tablets daily. What did scientists find? Compared to baseline, ND increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (3.4 percent and 3.7 percent) and femoral neck (4.1 percent and 4.7 percent) after one and two years, respectively. ND significantly reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures (21 percent vs. 43 percent in the placebo group; p < .05). ND showed a significant statistical increase in lean body mass after the first (6.2 percent) and second years (11.9 percent). In addition, a two-year treatment with ND significantly increased hemoglobin levels compared to baseline (14.3 percent) and placebo. The science nerds concluded, "ND increased BMD, hemoglobin levels and muscle mass and reduced the vertebral fracture rate of elderly osteoporotic women."4 Wait, did you read that? In OLDER women who were osteoporotic, nandrolone helps improve muscle mass and bone mineral density. It also reduces the risk of fractures. No ‘roid rage, nobody committing suicide, nobody throwing 45-pound plates in the gym. You mean this stuff can actually be beneficial and safe? Egads!

Even low doses work in bodybuilders. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 16 experienced male bodybuilders (ages: 19-44 years) received either ND (200 milligrams per week, intramuscularly) or placebo for eight weeks. ND administration resulted in significant increments of body mass (+2.2 kilograms), fat-free mass (FFM: +2.6 kilograms) and total body water (+1.4 kilograms).5
What about something to help improve recovery of connective tissue? Well indeed nandrolone does the trick! "Data suggest anabolic steroids may enhance production of bioartificial tendons and rotator cuff tendon healing in vitro."6

Nandrolone even helps patients on dialysis. Medical records of chronic hemodialysis patients receiving nandrolone decanoate for greater than 30 days were reviewed. They discovered nandrolone significantly improved markers of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. They also believe this therapy may enhance the hematopoietic or red blood cell-enhancing effects of EPO.7

So in summary, here's what we can reasonably say about nandrolone:
Nandrolone administration in moderate doses (no more than 200 milligrams per week) can increase muscle mass, increase fat-free mass and improve the function of patients with HIV, patients with low bone mineral density and patients undergoing dialysis. In addition, nandrolone can be an effective tool in promoting connective tissue healing.

That's what the science says!

Now what they print in newspapers may be different, for the sole reason that journalists are either too ignorant or too lazy to actually read the literature.

References

1. Nandrolone (http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/nandrolone/nandh.htm)
2. Storer TW, Woodhouse LJ, Sattler F, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss with recombinant human growth hormone as active reference treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, Aug 2005;90(8):4474-4482.
3. Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark RA, et al. Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med, Mar 14 2005;165(5):578-585.
4. Frisoli A, Jr., Chaves PH, Pinheiro MM, Szejnfeld VL. The effect of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral density, muscle mass and hemoglobin levels in elderly women with osteoporosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, May 2005;60(5):648-653.
5. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Hartgens F, Vollaard NB, Ebbing S, Kuipers H. Bodybuilders' body composition: effect of nandrolone decanoate. Med Sci Sports Exerc, Mar 2004;36(3):484-489.
6. Triantafillopoulos IK, Banes AJ, Bowman KF, Jr., Maloney M, Garrett WE, Jr., Karas SG. Nandrolone decanoate and load increase remodeling and strength in human supraspinatus bioartificial tendons. Am J Sports Med, Jun 2004;32(4):934-943.
7. Barton Pai A, Chretien C, Lau AH. The effects of nandrolone decanoate on nutritional parameters in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol, Jul 2002;58(1):38-46.

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:37 AM
Nandrolone Decanoate and Load Increase Remodeling and Strength in Human Supraspinatus Bioartificial Tendons

Ioannis K. Triantafillopoulos, MD*,, Albert J. Banes, PhD,,, Karl F. Bowman, Jr||, Melissa Maloney, MS¶, William E. Garrett, Jr, MD, PhD# and Spero G. Karas, MD*,,**

From * the Shoulder and Elbow Service, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Flexcell International Corporation, Hillsborough, North Carolina, the Department of Biomedical Engineering, the || School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, ¶ Flexcell International Corporation, Hillsborough, North Carolina, and the # Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

** Address correspondence to Spero G. Karas, MD, Chief, Shoulder and Elbow Service, University of North Carolina, Department of Orthopaedics, CB#7055, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7055 (e-mail: Spero_Karas@med.unc.edu (Spero_Karas@med.unc.edu) ).


Background: To date, no studies document the effect of anabolic steroids on rotator cuff tendons.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Hypothesis: Anabolic steroids enhance remodeling and improve the biomechanical properties of bioartificially engineered human supraspinatus tendons.

Methods: Bioartificial tendons were treated with either nandrolone decanoate (nonload, steroid, n = 18), loading (load, nonsteroid, n = 18), or both (load, steroid, n = 18). A control group received no treatment (nonload, nonsteroid [NLNS], n = 18). Bioartificial tendons’ remodeling was assessed by daily scanning, cytoskeletal organization by staining, matrix metalloproteinase–3 levels by ELISA assay, and biomechanical properties by load-to-failure testing.

Results: The load, steroid group showed the greatest remodeling and the best organized actin cytoskeleton. Matrix metallo-proteinase–3 levels in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid group (P < .05). Ultimate stress and ultimate strain in the load, steroid group were greater than those of the nonload, nonsteroid and nonload, steroid groups (P < .05). The strain energy density in the load, steroid group was greater when compared to other groups (P < .05).

Conclusions: Nandrolone decanoate and load acted synergistically to increase matrix remodeling and biomechanical properties of bioartificial tendons. Clinical Relevance: Data suggest anabolic steroids may enhance production of bioartificial tendons and rotator cuff tendon healing in vitro. More research is necessary before such clinical use is recommended.



http://ajs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/934 (http://ajs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/934)



http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=183128 (http://www.paktribune.com/news/print.php?id=183128)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:38 AM
Effects of Pharmacological Doses of Nandrolone Decanoate and Progressive Resistance Training in Immunodeficient Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Fred R. Sattler, S. Victoria Jaque, E. Todd Schroeder, Connie Olson, Michael P. Dube, Carmen Martinez, William Briggs, Richard Horton and Stanley Azen
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases (F.R.S., C.O., M.P.D.) and Endocrinology (C.M., R.H.), Department of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy (S.V.J., E.T.S.), and Department of Preventive Medicine (S.A.), University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90033

Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Dr. Fred R. Sattler, Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center, 1300 North Mission Road, Los Angeles, California 90033.


Abstract

This nonplacebo-controlled, open label, randomized study was conducted to test the hypotheses that pharmacological doses of nandrolone decanoate would increase lean body tissue, muscle mass, and strength in immunodeficient human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, and that these effects would be enhanced with progressive resistance training (PRT). Thirty human immunodeficiency virus-positive men with fewer than 400 CD4 lymphocytes/mm3 were randomly assigned to receive weekly injections of nandrolone alone or in combination with supervised PRT at 80% of the one-repetition maximum three times weekly for 12 weeks. Total body weight increased significantly in both groups (3.2 ± 2.7 and 4.0 ± 2.0 kg, respectively; P < 0.001), with increases due primarily to augmentation of lean tissue. Lean body mass determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry increased significantly more in the PRT group (3.9 ± 2.3 vs. 5.2 ± 5.7 kg, respectively; P = 0.03). Body cell mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both groups (2.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.9 ± 0.8 kg), but to a similar magnitude (P = NS). Significant increases in cross-sectional area by magnetic resonance imaging of total thigh muscles (1538 ± 767 and 1480 ± 532 mm2), quadriceps (705 ± 365 and 717 ± 288 mm2), and hamstrings (842 ± 409 and 771 ± 295 mm2) occurred with both treatment strategies (P < 0.001 for the three muscle areas); these increases were similar in both groups (P = NS). By the one-repetition method, strength increased in both upper and lower body exercises, with gains ranging from 10.3–31% in the nandrolone group and from 14.4–53.0% in the PRT group (P < 0.006 with one exception). Gains in strength were of significantly greater magnitude in the PRT group (P 0.005 for all comparisons), even after correction for lean body mass. Thus, pharmacological doses of nandrolone decanoate yielded significant gains in total weight, lean body mass, body cell mass, muscle size, and strength. The increases in lean body mass and muscular strength were significantly augmented with PRT.



Complete study;
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/4/1268 (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/4/1268)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:39 AM
Written by Dan Gwartney, MD


Nandrolone Cypionate

A Quicker Form of Deca

From time to time, a "new" steroid emerges and gains great attention. Bodybuilders eagerly anticipate adding a new weapon to their chemical arsenal, hoping the newly modified androgen will somehow allow them to break personal records and pack an extra inch into their shirtsleeves. It's important to put aside the emotional reaction that accompanies any novel introduction and evaluate these "new" entries on a more objective basis.
There truly has not been much in the way of novel steroids in the last three decades, as the existing drugs appear to cover all the bases therapeutically; the number of treatments using anabolic steroids has decreased; the public stigma and increased regulation hinders business growth; and the drugs are no longer protected by patents, making them less profitable. Only recently has the public become aware of an underground research and development presence within the black market serving professional and Olympic athletes.1,2 Unfortunately, the primary aim of these new steroids is to avoid detection rather than improve the safety or efficacy of the drugs.

Improving Upon Deca

There have been a few steroids newly released on the market in the last several years. However, for the most part, it's a bit of a stretch to call them new. One recent entry into the anabolic pharmacopoeia is nandrolone cypionate (CAS registry #601-63-8). This drug has been manufactured in the past by a small number of companies, but it's now encountered most commonly as the SYD GROUP product Anabolic DN.3 SYD GROUP is a veterinary drug company utilizing a manufacturing plant located in Australia and distributing primarily throughout Mexico. SYD GROUP has received positive reports based upon the experiences of bodybuilders who have used SYD GROUP products, as well as claims appearing on message boards that the products' contents have been verified in laboratory analysis.
Considering the sources of this information are not readily identified and that this will appear in the U.S. as a diverted product on the black market, the usual precautions should be taken with this product. As with other anabolic steroids, sale or possession of nandrolone cypionate is a federal felony. No SYD GROUP counterfeit products have been reported; recent label changes (including a hologram) should make it difficult to produce a convincing imitation and the company provides batch numbers and expiration dates on it website.
Nandrolone cypionate is a 17-B ester of nandrolone, similar to the familiar and extremely popular steroid Deca-durabolin. Whereas Deca has a 10-carbon ester (decanoate) attached to the nandrolone molecule, Anabolic DN has an eight-carbon ester (cypionate). The difference between esters affects several properties of a steroid. In general, the longer the ester, the slower it's released, the less potent per milligram and the delay to effect is longer.6 Deca provides excellent results to male and female bodybuilders, but a common complaint is that it requires either a long cycle or it has to be stacked with fast-acting injectables or orals. By bonding nandrolone to a shorter ester, users are in effect provided with a faster-acting, slightly more potent version of Deca.



Changing to a shorter ester would be viewed as a negative alteration for the therapeutic use of nandrolone in many cases; shorter esters require more frequent injections and have higher peaks. However, for the bodybuilder, this may be seen as a positive. Bodybuilders typically cycle anabolic steroids for a period of six to 12 weeks. As Deca has both a slow onset of action and long half-life, Deca cycles often last 12 to 16 weeks. A quicker-acting version of nandrolone would allow for a quicker onset of action, quicker results and a comparatively shorter cycle. Having a shorter half-life, Anabolic DN would clear the system quicker, allowing natural testosterone production to be restored in a shorter time.7 For those subject to drug testing, users of Anabolic DN would not test positive for as long as those who use an equivalent amount of Deca. Female users suffering from androgenic side effects could anticipate a quicker resolution of the problems compared to Deca, though the time course would still be slow.

Establishing a Trend

Anabolic DN represents a trend in steroid development. Foreign manufacturers are recognizing that there's a demand for both different esters of established steroids and higher concentrations. Nandrolone is extremely popular, but as previously stated, it's slow acting in its most common form (Deca). There are fast-acting, very short chain nandrolone esters, such as the drug Durabolin.8 Durabolin elicits a rapid response, but requires frequent injections, as it is quickly cleared from the system. Most recreational users prefer a form that provides a response within the first week to 10 days, but does not require an injection every other day.
Another trend demonstrated by Anabolic DN is the high concentration, 300 milligrams per milliliter (mg/ml).3 Deca and most testosterone esters traditionally have concentrations no higher than 200 mg/ml. However, the demand for high-concentration products by bodybuilders has inspired some manufacturers to produce higher-concentration products. This is achieved through the use of additives such as benzyl alcohol and/or benzyl benzoate. One drawback to such preparations is the tendency to cause injection site pain and swelling. However, most users report Anabolic DN injections are tolerable.



The benefits of Anabolic DN are derived from its steroid component, nandrolone. Nandrolone is also known as 19-nortestosterone (19-NT). 19-NT is similar to testosterone, with the exception of a carbon atom missing from one end of the molecule (carbon 19). Though 19-NT retains its anabolic properties, much of the androgenic effect of the steroid is removed. Additionally, the metabolism of 19-NT imparts different effects than the metabolism of testosterone. Two primary enzyme systems metabolize testosterone; aromatase and 5-A reductase. These same enzyme systems also act on 19-NT, but the end result is different.



Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens into estrogenic hormones.9,10 This is the mechanism that leads to side effects such as gynecomastia- the development of breast tissue in males.11 Testosterone and androstenedione are natural precursors for this enzymatic conversion, which takes place in eight steps in humans. The conversion of androgens to estrogens requires the formation of three double bonds in the first ring, with the removal of carbon-19.



This explanation suggests that a steroid without carbon-19 (e.g., 19-NT) would aromatize more rapidly, but in fact the enzymatic process is much less efficient and requires a separate enzyme pathway.12 19-NT is not naturally present in appreciable amounts in humans and does not serve as a preferred precursor to the aromatase system.13 Compared to testosterone, 19-NT is only converted to estrogen at a 10-20 percent efficiency rate.14-16 This explains why many bodybuilders do not suffer estrogenic side effects when using Deca or other nandrolone-based drugs. Some do develop gynecomastia. When this happens, it may be due to the presence of other anabolic steroids or the ability of 19-NT to bind to and activate progesterone receptors.17 Progesterone is another female hormone.
Due in part to its mild estrogenic burden, progesterone-like properties and androgenic structure, 19-NT will shut down natural testosterone production.7 Given that 19-NT does not have a strong androgenic component, many users suffer from a decreased libido and occasionally impotence, unless they also stack an androgenic steroid in the cycle. This is referred to as "Deca dick" in gym slang, but would apply to any 19-NT based steroid.



One would assume that any anabolic steroid cycle would actually increase libido and erections, given that androgen levels are elevated. However, 19-NT is less androgenic than testosterone, despite binding well to the androgen receptors. Even more importantly, 19-NT does not convert to a more potent androgen under the influence of 5-A reductase, as does testosterone. In many tissues, including the prostate and hair follicles, testosterone is converted to a more potent androgen by the enzyme 5-A reductase. When the same enzyme system acts on 19-NT, the resulting steroid is actually less androgenic than 19-NT.18 This accounts for the popularity of Deca and other 19-NT steroids among men suffering from hair loss or prostate enlargement, as well as women.

Popularity Plus

Deca is commonly cycled for 10-16 weeks at a dose of 400- 800 mg/week.5 Most users stack Deca with an androgenic oral to accelerate the anabolic effect and avoid the onset of a decreased libido or impotence. Nandrolone cypionate is being used in a similar fashion, though some users are satisfied with shorter cycles of eight to 12 weeks and are using higher doses with the higher concentration present in Anabolic DN.



Nandrolone has been one of the most popular derivatives of testosterones ever developed. It is considered to be well tolerated, giving moderate strength and mass gains with a low risk of side effects. In its most popular form, nandrolone decanoate (Deca durabolin) has earned a loyal following among bodybuilders.



Though Deca has a slow onset and does not provide outstanding gains in single drug cycles, it's mild enough to use in longer cycles and stacks extremely well with more androgenic steroids. Even to this date, one of the most popular cycles remains the tried and true "Deca and D-bol" stack. The downsides to Deca include its slow onset and the prolonged delay in clearing the drug, both in terms of drug detection and restoring natural testosterone production. By supplying nandrolone (19-NT) as the cypionate ester, a faster onset of action can be achieved and a quicker clearance after the cycle ends. Additionally, by using a shorter ester chain, each dose will be slightly more potent, as the nandrolone component will account for a greater percentage of the molecular weight.



Nandrolone cypionate is currently circulating as the SYD GROUP product Anabolic DN. Though this drug will offer the same benefits as Deca, in a slightly more advantageous form, the same precautions and warnings should be heeded. Side effects can occur with Anabolic DN such as are seen with Deca, though these side effects may be expected to occur slightly more frequently as the peak dose will be higher after each injection. The drug is distributed through the black market, though the inclusion of a hologram on the bottle and the public listing of batch numbers and expiration dates does offer some protection to potential buyers. Anabolic DN is a controlled substance as defined by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration; thus, the sale or possession of this steroid is a federal felony.

References


Catlin DH, Ahrens BD, et al. Detection of norbolethone, an anabolic steroid never marketed, in athletes' urine. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2002;16(13):1273-5.
Catlin DH, Sekera MH, et al. Tetrahydrogestrinone: discovery, synthesis, and detection in urine. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2004;18(12):1245-9.
SYD Group S.A. de C.V. Product Name: Anabolic DN Injection. Available on http://www.veterinaria.com/mx (http://www.veterinaria.com/mx) accessed February 3, 2005.
Controlled Substances Act. United States Code Service - 21 USCS Section 802. Lawyers Cooperative Publishing;1996.
Llewellyn W. Deca-durabolin (nandrolone decanoate). Anabolics 2004. Molecular Nutrition Press, Jupiter, Fl;2004:88-91.
Gooren LJ, Bunck MC. Androgen replacement therapy: present and future. Drugs, 2004;64(17):1861-91.
Boyadjiev NP, Georgieva KN, et al. Reversible hypogonadism and azoospermia as a result of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in a bodybuilder with personality disorder. A case report. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2000 Sep;40(3):271-4.
Llewellyn W. Durabolin (nandrolone phenylpropionate). Anabolics 2004. Molecular Nutrition Press, Jupiter, FL;2004:99-100.
Simpson ER, Mahendroo MS, et al. Aromatase cytochrome p450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Endocr Rev, 1994;15:342-55.
Dintinger T, Gaillard JL, et al. Androgen and 19-norandrogen aromatization by equine and human placental microsomes. J Steroid Biochem, 1989 Nov;33(5):949-54.
Braunstein GD. Aromatase and gynecomastia. Endocr Relat Cancer, 1999 Jun;6(2):315-24.
Auvray P, Nativelle C, et al. Study of substrate specificity of human aromatase by site directed mutagenesis. Eur J Biochem, 2002;269:1393-1405.
Reznik Y, Dehennin L, et al. Urinary nandrolone metabolites of endogenous origin in man: a confirmation by output regulation under human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001;86:146-50.
Gaillard JL, Silberzhan P. Aromatization of 19-norandrogens by equine testicular microsomes. J Biol Chem, 1987 Apr 25;262(12):5717-22.
Thompson EA, Siiteri PK. Studies on the aromatization of C-19 androgens. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1973;212:378-91.
Gual C, Morato T, et al. Biosynthesis of estrogens. Endocrinology, 1962;71:920-5.
Beri R, Kumar N, et al. Estrogenic and progestational activity of 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, a synthetic androgen. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 1998 Nov;67(3):275-83.
Sundaram K, Kumar N, et al. Different patterns of metabolism determine the relative anabolic activity of 19-norandrogens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 1995 Jun;53(1-6):253-7.

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:39 AM
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nandrolone esters in oil vehicle: effects of ester, injection site and injection volume.

Minto CF (http://forums.rxmuscle.com/pubmed?term=%22Minto%20CF%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Howe C (http://forums.rxmuscle.com/pubmed?term=%22Howe%20C%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Wishart S (http://forums.rxmuscle.com/pubmed?term=%22Wishart%20S%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Conway AJ (http://forums.rxmuscle.com/pubmed?term=%22Conway%20AJ%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract), Handelsman DJ (http://forums.rxmuscle.com/pubmed?term=%22Handelsman%20DJ%22%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsP anel.Pubmed_RVAbstract).
Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia.

We studied healthy men who underwent blood sampling for plasma nandrolone, testosterone and inhibin measurements before and for 32 days after a single i.m. injection of 100 mg of nandrolone ester in arachis oil. Twenty-three men were randomized into groups receiving nandrolone phenylpropionate (group 1, n = 7) or nandrolone decanoate (group 2, n = 6) injected into the gluteal muscle in 4 ml of arachis oil vehicle or nandrolone decanoate in 1 ml of arachis oil vehicle injected into either the gluteal (group 3, n = 5) or deltoid (group 4, n = 5) muscles. Plasma nandrolone, testosterone and inhibin concentrations were analyzed by a mixed-effects indirect response model. Plasma nandrolone concentrations were influenced (P < .001) by different esters and injection sites, with higher and earlier peaks with the phenylpropionate ester, compared with the decanoate ester. After nandrolone decanoate injection, the highest bioavailability and peak nandrolone levels were observed with the 1-ml gluteal injection. Plasma testosterone concentrations were also influenced (P < .001) by the ester and injection site, with the most rapid, but briefest, suppression being due to the phenylpropionate ester, whereas the most sustained suppression was achieved with the 1-ml gluteal injection. Plasma inhibin concentrations were also significantly influenced by injection volume and site, with the lowest nadir occurring after the nandrolone decanoate 1-ml gluteal injection. Thus, the bioavailability and physiological effects of a nandrolone ester in an oil vehicle are greatest when the ester is injected in a small (1 ml vs. 4 ml) volume and into the gluteal vs. deltoid muscle. We conclude that the side-chain ester and the injection site and volume influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nandrolone esters in an oil vehicle in men.


PMID: 9103484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F1.medium.gif (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F1.large.jpg)

Figure 1
Time course of plasma nandrolone concentrations in 23 healthy men over 32 days after i.m. injection of 100 mg of nandrolone phenylpropionate in 4 ml of arachis oil vehicle into the gluteal muscle (group 1) (♦) or injection of 100 mg of nandrolone decanoate into the gluteal muscle in 4 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 2) (○), into the gluteal muscle in 1 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 3) (•) or into the deltoid muscle in 1 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 4) (▪). Results are expressed as mean and S.E.M., unless the S.E. is smaller than symbol.

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F2.medium.gif (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F2.large.jpg)

Figure 2
Observed and model-predicted time course of plasma nandrolone concentrations in four healthy men over 32 days after i.m. injection of 100 mg of nandrolone ester. The four men were selected from each of the treatment groups according to the median predicted error in nandrolone concentrations, so that they were most representative of that group. Note the logarithmic vertical scale. •, observed data; ——, individual Bayesian predictions.
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F3.medium.gif (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93/F3.large.jpg)

Figure 3
Time course of plasma testosterone concentrations in 23 healthy men over 32 days after i.m. injection of 100 mg of nandrolone phenylpropionate in 4 ml of arachis oil vehicle into the gluteal muscle (group 1) (♦) or injection of 100 mg of nandrolone decanoate into the gluteal muscle in 4 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 2) (○), into the gluteal muscle in 1 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 3) (•) or into the deltoid muscle in 1 ml of arachis oil vehicle (group 4) (▪). Results expressed as mean and S.E.M., unless the S.E. is smaller than the symbol.

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93.full (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/281/1/93.full)

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:45 AM
Invest Surg. 2010 Aug;23(4):204-7.

The effect of local use of nandrolone decanoate on rotator cuff repair in rabbits.

Papaspiliopoulos A (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Papaspiliopoulos%20A%22%5BAuthor%5D ), Papaparaskeva K (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Papaparaskeva%20K%22%5BAuthor%5D), Papadopoulou E (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Papadopoulou%20E%22%5BAuthor%5D), Feroussis J (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Feroussis%20J%22%5BAuthor%5D), Papalois A (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Papalois%20A%22%5BAuthor%5D), Zoubos A (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Zoubos%20A%22%5BAuthor%5D).
8th Orthopeadic Department-Shoulder Service, Asklepeion General Hospital, Voula, Athens, Greece. athospap@gmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: There is still controversy about the effect of anabolic steroid on connective tissue. This study examines the hypothesis that the local use of nandrolone decanoate, an anabolic steroid on rotator cuff, facilitates the healing process when used in combination with surgical repair.
METHODS: Forty-eight male rabbits were divided in four groups with anabolic steroids (Nandrolone Decanoate 10 mg/kg) and immobilization as variables. The groups were the following: first group, nonsteroid use-immobilization (NSI); second group, nonsteroid use-nonimmobilization (NSNI); third group, steroid use-immobilization (SI); fourth group steroid use-nonimmobilization (SNI). Every rabbit underwent a rotator cuff incision and reconstruction. Fifteen days later the tendons were sent for biomechanical and histological evaluation.
RESULTS: Groups that did not receive anabolic steroids showed better healing and more tendon strength in comparison to groups that received anabolic steroids. Microscopic examination of specimens from the groups without the use of anabolic steroid showed extensive fibroblastic activity whereas the specimens from those groups with anabolic steroid use showed focal fibroblastic reaction and inflammation. Immobilization provided better results in the groups with anabolic steroid use but it did not influence healing in groups without steroids.
CONCLUSIONS: The effect of local nandrolone decanoate use on a rotator cuff tear is detrimental, acting as a healing inhibitor.


PMID: 20690845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 07:50 AM
Durabolin

Nandrolone Phenylpropionate

Nandrolone

By Anthony Roberts

Nandrolone is a modification of testosterone (carbon atom removed from the 19th position) With an Anabolic/Androgenic ratio: 125:37, meaning it is highly anabolic (muscle building) and moderately androgenic (male characteristics). Due to nandrolones chemical structure it only aromatizes (converts to estrogen) slightly, at about 20% the rate of testosterone when it interacts with the aromatase enzyme. Ergo, estrogenic effects are not a major concern with its use. Of note, however, is that nandrolone is a progestin with a binding affinity of 20% to the progesterone receptor (15) (PgR), so side effects are still possible, though rare. The development of breast tissue in males (gynecomastia) has been reported in some steroid.com users. One of the most popular anabolic steroid used in bodybuilding cycles, nandrolone is also (medically) used to treat severe debility or disease states and refractory anemias.(1) It promotes tissue building processes, reverses catabolism (muscle destruction) and stimulates erythropoiesis (red blood cell production). This makes it a very useful drug to treat wasting disorders such as advanced H.I.V. (2)( 16), and also, makes it highly sought after by bodybuilders and athletes.

Nandrolone Decanoate, Cypionate, Laurate Cycles

Nandrolone is most commonly found with a cypionate, laurate, decanoate or plenylpropionate ester. Briefly explained, the ester determines how much of the given hormone is released over a period of time. Longer esters such as decanoate peak slowly and can keep stable blood plasma levels up to ten days, shorter esters such as the phenylpropionate peak more rapidly but the half-live is shorter. Shorter esters usually release much more active hormone per mg than longer esters, and of course, allow the drug´s effects to leave your system more quickly.. Surprisingly NPP (Durabolin) and ND (Deca) release almost the same amount of active nandrolone per 100mgs: 69% and 65% respectively; this does not correlate exactly though because blood levels of nandrolone are much higher (about doubled) post NPP usage compared to the same 100mg dose of ND. (see chart) NPP also has more distinct advantages over ND. One of the most common complaints about adding ND (Deca) to a cycle is the water retention that accompanies its use. (3) Gains from NPP are reported to be "clean" with minimal water retention and fat gain. While ND is usually used in "bulking" cycles, NPP is used in "cutting" cycles although either drug can be used in either regard. Being an oil based anabolic it is injected intramuscularly (into the muscle), many users inject it ED or EOD, however NPP can administered E4D without problems.

NPP, and nandrolone in general, has a number of benefits for athletes; it increases levels of serotonergic amines in the brain, these chemicals contribute to aggressive behavior, this could help athletes to train harder and improve speed and power.4 Nandrolone also increases levels of IGF-1 in muscle tissues.(5) This may be another way that makes nandrolone highly anabolic. NPP also benefits the athlete by increasing the number of androgen receptors (AR) one study showed that nandrolone given to rats at a dosage of 6mg/kg of bodyweight combined with muscle functional overload (muscle functional overload gives a similar effect to resistance training) had a 1,300% (!) increase in AR protein concentrations. (6) There is a direct link to muscle growth and AR levels. NPP also seems to be a promising fat loss agent, men given the drug had reduced levels of subcutaneous (under skin) adipose(fat) tissue, visceral (gut) fat loss was not as good however.(7) The fat loss effect seems though to be dose dependant, in one study NPP at a daily dose of 1, 4, or 10mg per kg of bodyweight the 10mg dose had the greatest effect on fatloss, thus displaying a dose respondant curve with NPP(8). The more you use, the more results you´ll get, with regards to this drug.

NPP is used to treat anemia by stimulating red blood cell production,(1) and an increase in RBC count can improve endurance during exercise via better lactic acid clearing and oxygen delivery. The blood is also better enabled to carry nutrients to muscle tissue to aid in repair, administration also increases the rate of muscle glycogen repletion after exercise helping the athlete dramatically improve recovery after strenuous physical exercise.(9) Athletes who require a high level of endurance in their chosen sport can benefit from the use of NPP.(15) A favorite with bodybuilders who suffer with sore joints, NPP can also improve collagen synthesis (10), which may improve joint function and alleviate joint pains. Many members of steroid.com swear by nandrolones ability to allow them to train in comfort.

Nandrolone Side Effects

Although many nandrolone lovers claim that it is one of the safest anabolic steroids, if not the safest. It does have side effects that can be bothersome in hypersensitive individuals, such as acne, excitation, insomnia, nausea, diarrhea and bladder irritability(1). More serious (and common) side effects include testicular atrophy (shrunken balls), impotence (deca dick) and gynecomastia (bitch tits) (1). Nandrolone use has been shown to be safe and easy on the lipid profile, often improving HDL Cholesterol (16) Impotence can be offset by stacking the nandrolone with a higher testosterone. Nandrolone also causes the "shut down" (total stoppage) of endogenous (natural) testosterone production. Thus an exogenous (outside) source must be provided, the increased prolactin levels from the use of a progestinic steroid contribute to HPTA shut down and testicular atrophy which can be treated with a combination HCG (a female hormone that acts like LH when introduced into the male body) and bromocriptine (a dopamine receptor agonist that, among other things, can lower prolactin levels.) (1)(11) Besides using bromcriptine to lower prolactin levels, the anti-estrogens fulvestrant or letrozole on be taken to down regulate the progesterone and estrogen receptor.(12)( 13 )

NPP can be highly useful in either "bulking" or "cutting" cycles, and it would seem that diet and dosages are the determining factors of whether a cycle with this drug will be one or the other. Due to its highly anabolic nature coupled with low androgenic properties it can be incorporated into a mass cycle, usually stacked with testosterone and a powerful oral like possibly oxymetholone (Anadrol) or methandrostenolone (Dianabol). NPP can thus be part of a classic bulking cycle. For a cutting cycle NPP is usually be combined with other short-estered injectable anabolic steroids (testosterone propionate and boldenone acetate come to mind as likely choices) and one of the DHT derived orals such as stanozolol (winstrol) or oxandrolone (Anavar). NPP is said to produce good mass and strength gains in both cutting and bulking cycle phases (3). When one is planning a cutting cycle one must take caution if combining the 19-nor-testosterone derivative trenbolone with nandrolone. Trenbolone Acetate, although a powerful drug for lean muscle gains, strength, and fat loss is also a strong progestin with a binding affinity to the PgR of 60% (3x that of nandrolone). The elevated prolactin, can worsen HPTA insult, often causing the user to spend more money on preventative measures, the combo may also result in a difficult PCT protocol to regain natural testosterone production. So far few steroid.com members have any first- hand experience with NPP... limited to the few who know which UGLabs sells this particular form of nandrolone. This increases the popularity of "home brewing" ...since the powder comes out of China at very affordable prices. It is only a matter of time before NPP (or Durabolin) takes a special place in the arsenal of steroid.com members in their quest for more muscle.

Nandrolone Base + Phenylpropionate Ester
Molecular Weight(base):274.4022
Molecular Weight (ester): 150.174
Formula (base): C18 H26 O2
Formula (ester): C9 H10 O2
Melting Point (base): 122-124°C
Melting Point (ester): 20°C
Manufacturer: Organon
Effective Dose (Men): 200-600mgs/week (2mg/lb of Bodyweight)
Effective Dose (Women): 50-100mgs/week
Active life: 5 days
Detection Time: Up to 12 months
Androgenic/Aabolic ratio: 37:125


References:


Nursing2003 drug handbook.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec; 283(6):E1214-22.
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Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Oct;27(10):1385-9.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;283(6):E1214-22. Epub 2002 Aug 27.

heavyiron
12-26-2010, 11:45 AM
Am J Sports Med. (http://javascript<b></b>:AL_get(this, 'jour', 'Am J Sports Med.');) 1999 Jan-Feb;27(1):2-9.

The effect of anabolic steroids and corticosteroids on healing of muscle contusion injury.

Beiner JM (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Beiner%20JM%22%5BAuthor%5D), Jokl P (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Jokl%20P%22%5BAuthor%5D), Cholewicki J (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Cholewicki%20J%22%5BAuthor%5D), Panjabi MM (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Panjabi%20MM%22%5BAuthor%5D).
Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8071, USA.

Abstract

The effect of an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate, 20 mg/kg) and a corticosteroid (methylprednisolone acetate, 25 mg/kg) on healing muscle injured with a drop-mass technique in a reproducible muscle contusion injury model in the rat was studied. Healing was determined by measuring active contractile tension in each muscle and histologic analysis. At day 2, the corticosteroid group showed significant improvement in both twitch and tetanic strength relative to the controls. At day 7, this effect was reversed and the corticosteroid muscles were significantly weaker than the control muscles, but there was still no significant effect seen in the anabolic steroid group. At day 14, the corticosteroid muscles were totally degenerated, with disorganized muscle fiber architecture. The anabolic steroid muscles were significantly stronger in twitch, and a similar trend was seen in tetanus relative to control muscles. The results indicate that in an animal model corticosteroids may be beneficial in the short term, but they cause irreversible damage to healing muscle in the long term, including disordered fiber structure and a marked diminution in force-generating capacity. Anabolic steroids may aid in the healing of muscle contusion injury to speed the recovery of force-generating capacity. Although anabolic steroids are considered renegade drugs, they may have an ethical clinical application to aid healing in severe muscle contusion injury, and their use in the treatment of muscle injuries warrants further research.


PMID: 9934411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

heavyiron
01-01-2011, 03:53 PM
Climacteric. (http://javascript<b></b>:AL_get(this, 'jour', 'Climacteric.');) 2007 Aug;10(4):344-53.

Can 19-nortestosterone derivatives be aromatized in the liver of adult humans? Are there clinical implications?

Kuhl H (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Kuhl%20H%22%5BAuthor%5D), Wiegratz I (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed?term=%22Wiegratz%20I%22%5BAuthor%5D).
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, J.W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.


Comment in:

Climacteric. 2008 Apr;11(2):175; author reply 175-6. (http://www.ironmagazineforums.com/pubmed/18365860)
Abstract

CONTEXT: Previous studies in postmenopausal women have demonstrated that, after oral administration of norethisterone, a small proportion of the compound is rapidly converted into ethinylestradiol. The shape of the concentration - time curve suggested that this occurred in the liver. The results were confirmed by in vitro investigations with adult human liver tissue. In 2002, it was shown that, after oral treatment of women with tibolone, aromatization of the compound occurred, resulting in the formation of a potent estrogen, 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol. The result has been called into question, because the adult human liver does not express cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is encoded by the CYP 19 gene. Moreover, it has been claimed that the serum level of 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was an artifact. REPLY: Aromatization of steroids is a complex process of consecutive oxidation reactions which are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The conversion of the natural C19 steroids, testosterone and androstenedione, into estradiol-17beta and estrone is dependent on the oxidative elimination of the angular C19-methyl group. This complex key reaction is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 aromatase, which is expressed in many tissues of the adult human (e.g. ovary, fat tissue), but not in the liver. However, 19-nortestosterone derivatives are characterized by the lack of the C19-methyl group. Therefore, for the aromatization of these synthetic steroids, the action of the cytochrome P450 aromatase is not necessary and the oxidative introduction of double bonds into the A-ring can be catalyzed by other hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. The final key process in the formation of a phenolic A-ring, both in natural androgens and 19-nortestosterone derivatives, is the enolization of a 3-keto group to the C2-C3-enol or the C3-C4-enol moiety, which occurs without the action of enzymes. CONCLUSION: 19-nortestosterone derivatives (norethisterone, norethynodrel, tibolone) can readily be aromatized in the adult human liver. This leads to the formation of the potent estrogens ethinylestradiol from norethisterone or norethynodrel and 7 alpha-methyl-ethinylestradiol from tibolone. This may have clinical consequences, e.g. the elevated risk of venous thromboembolic disease in premenopausal women treated with high doses of norethisterone for bleeding disorders, or the elevated risk of stroke or endometrial disease in postmenopausal women treated with tibolone.


PMID: 17653961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]