Prami: Much more than just an effective tool for lowering prolactin.
Pramipexole (Prami) is a compound in the class called "dopamine agonists" and has many uses for various research areas. In this article I will go into all the major benefits that Prami can bring to the table of a fellow researcher. Of course to understand Prami you must understand some of the basics about the actions that this compound can elicit. A dopamine agonist is a class of compounds that activates the dopamine receptors. Prami does so by activating signaling pathways through the dopamine receptor and trimeric G-proteins in the body which then leads to changes in gene transcription. This class of drug is of big interest to many researchers studying (but not limited to) hypodopaminergic type conditions. Prami's effects on the body and mind can be very wide spread, thus its research into possible treatment of various conditions is justified.
Pramipexole is a hydrophilic compound and exhibits high oral bioavailability in test subjects. This relates to less compound being needed for administration and to achieve the desired effects in research. Prami has a host of possible research applications as already mentioned and has been found to have a very positive effect in research with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and early stage Parkinson's disease. Prami has shown in research to have multiple neuroprotective mechanisms and may have a positive application to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases research.
Antipsychotic compounds are frequently administered to treat depression, delirium and other psychiatric difficulties in test subjects. The issue I would like to point out with this is the fact many of these compounds affect prolactin levels (most raise prolactin levels) and this can cause sexual dysfunction (SD) which may alter a study where this is not ideal. I bring this up because one of Prami's major positive traits is its ability to lower prolactin levels and this has been shown many times in research. Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone mainly known for its major roles in lactation, endocrinology and metabolism, control of water/salt balance, growth and development, brain and behavior, reproduction, endocrinology and metabolism, and immune regulation and protection. It's easy to see why having a compound like Prami around to control or lower prolactin can be very important. Elevated prolactin has been shown to cause issues in research sensitive to this and is something every researcher should consider when conducting certain studies. The subjects of studies where prolactin may be an issue should be monitored and possibly administered Prami to lower or prevent a rise in prolactin. Prami has been shown to reverse antipsychotic-induced prolactin increases without compromising psychiatric effectiveness of antipsychotic compounds, which is very important.
Prami has shown to have positive effects on cluster headaches and to counteract SD under various conditions (as already noted above). SD has been seen in many studies with subjects that were administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).This makes Prami a valued addition to SSRI research and may cut down on negative side effects of SSRI administration seen in test subjects.
Recently studies have shown an improved therapeutic effect of L-dopa in 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency. This suggests that Prami can improve or even replace L-dopa therapy in disorders of synthesis and regeneration of Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is essential for many diverse processes and is present in all tissues of higher organisms. It is also well established as an essential cofactor for various enzyme activities in the body. Prami may play a very positive role in this type of disorder and should be investigated in this area further.
Many studies have shown Prami to be an optimal option for controlling and lowering prolactin levels. In a recent study it was shown that a single oral dose of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of Prami over a 24hr period to decreased serum prolactin levels in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect in this study was seen 2 to 4 hours after administration to test subjects. Another amazing find in this study and many others is that Prami can increase levels of growth hormone (GH) and was shown to be dose-dependently increased 2hr after administration. Yet another possible application for Prami research, its use as a GH boosting compound. A lot of times with compounds there comes side effects and what I like about Prami is that it been shown in various studies to be generally well tolerated. This is of importance considering Prami is a top choice for Prolactin control, having shown a 6.7-fold greater reduction in serum prolactin levels compared to placebo in a recent study.
Not all dopamine agonist's have the same effects as Prami does. Prami has unique traits to it and has shown to have an antidepressant effect as well. Considering many SSRI's (used for depression research) cause a rise in prolactin which may cause SD, I feel Prami's very positive trait in this area make it a good partner for SSRI research. Prami has also been shown in to have an antidepressant effect in subjects with Parkinson's disease not being administered SSRI's, showing there is more to Prami's anti-depressant qualities then just subjects being administered SSRI's. In a study with more than one dopamine agonist it was shown that; "dopamine receptor D(2) and D(3) expression was up-regulated in the striatum following pramipexole treatment, while imipramine and bromocriptine had no significant effects. These findings support that pramipexole exerts additional therapeutic benefits such as decreasing depression by increasing dopamine receptor D(3) expression in the striatum." Prami binds very well to D(2)/D(3) receptors in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and medial and lateral thalamus. These regions are believed to have some relation to depression and this is why I believe Prami to have these positive effects on depression. Even in test subjects not being administered SSRI?s during research or that had normal Prolactin levels Prami was shown to have a positive effect on depression.
Prami is truly a multifaceted compound with various effects and it is very unique to other dopamine agonists. Prami is well tolerated, shown to boost GH after administration, have multiple neuroprotective mechanisms, effectively lower prolactin and have a very high oral availability! In my opinion this makes Prami a top choice compound for any researcher investigating dopamine agonists, depression, Alzheimer's & Parkinson's diseases, Side effects from SSRI's or even just simply needing a compound to safely and effectively lower prolactin levels in their test subjects. Prami is a top contender for all of the above and may even lead to fewer compounds needed in certain research settings due to its unique multifaceted qualities over other dopamine agonists.
The possibilities are endless with Prami research and I hope this article helps fellow researchers out in picking the right compound to research with for their specific goals.