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Thread: Oxytocin

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    Thumbs up Oxytocin






    OXYTOCIN CHARACTERISTICS:


    - Reduced muscle tension
    - Temporarily reduced appetite but increasing appetite with long term use
    - Stimulates digestion on full stomach
    - Increased urination (diuretic effect)
    - Faster healing wounds and reduced inflammation
    - Increase in growth hormone
    - Stimulates mating
    - More social contact between individuals
    - Increased boldness and curiosity
    - Sleep inducing effect (with high dosages)
    - Diminished pain sensation
    - Improved learning
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    'Love Hormone' Oxytocin May Intensify Orgasms
    04/04/14 11:10 AM ET
    By Rachael Rettner, Senior Writer Published: 04/04/2014 05:00pm EST on LiveScience


    A dose of the "love hormone" oxytocin may make people's orgasms more intense, a new study from Germany suggests.


    In the study, 29 healthy couples who'd been together for at least a year took either an oxytocinnasal spray or a placebo spray before having sex in their home. After intercourse, participants completed a survey about their sexual experience as well as their feelings toward their partner.


    Oxytocin had no effect on sex drive or arousal for either men or women, nor did it affect the ability to achieve an erection for men, or vaginal lubrication for women. [11 Interesting Effects of Oxytocin]


    But those who took oxytocin before sex — especially men — reported slightly more intense orgasms, as well as greater levels of contentment after sex. In addition, men who took oxytocin said they felt more sexually sated after sex than those who took the placebo.


    Some women who took oxytocin reported that they were better able to share their sexual desires and empathize with their partners during sex.


    "This field study demonstrates that [oxytocin] may alter specific aspects of sexual experience and partner interactions in healthy couples," the researchers, from Hannover Medical School in Germany, wrote in the March issue of the journal Hormones and Behavior.


    Previous studies have suggested that oxytocin plays a role in relationship bonding, and the hormone is known to be released from the brain's pituitary gland during orgasm. But few studies have examined whether higher levels of the hormone affect sexual behavior.


    The researchers noted that even though oxytocin seemed to intensify people's orgasms, the effect was rather modest. For example, men who took the hormone rated their contentment after sex about half a point higher (on a six-point scale) than those who took the placebo. This may be because oxytocin is already released during sex, so the effect of additional oxytocin may not be very large, the researchers said.


    The researchers also noted the study was small and involved adults who reported no sexual problems. Future studies are needed to confirm the findings and to see whether the hormone may help those with sexual dysfunction, such those as low sexual desire or erectile dysfunction, the researchers said.
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    I've been reading about this peptide a lot. Apparently it leads to vivid, lucid sex dreams. I can't wait as I have some on the way. I have struggled with insomnia and social anxiety disorder for years. I'll
    report back on my experiences.
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    Oxytocin, Sleep, and Dreams


    By Patrick McNamara, Ph.D. on August 27, 2011 - 5:48am
    The neurohormone oxytocin has been found to influence a range of social and affiliative behaviors (MacDonald and MacDonald, 2010). Administration of oxytocin (OT) can enhance trust, empathy and a host of other pro-social feelings (MacDonald and MacDonald, 2010). We know that dreams, particularly dreams associated with the REM state, are primarily about social emotions and social interactions with people close to us and with perfect strangers. Could it be then that OT influences dream content when dreams depict social interactions?

    There is evidence that oxytocin influences sleep processes: Levels of oxytocin peak at around 5 hours after sleep onset when REM sleep predominates.
    Blagrove and his colleagues in Britain have been doing some exciting work on this issue. They (Blagrove et al, 2011) recently reported that OT levels are also correlated with stages of light sleep (Stage 2 in the old nomenclature). Dreams from Stage II are just as filled with social interactions as dreams from REM sleep.


    Oxytocinergic activity, furthermore, is regulated by nuclei within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus close to centers that regulate arousal and sleep-wake states. In addition, oxytocin is known to modulate reactivity of the amygdala to social emotions and the amygdala, in turn, is modulated by REM sleep. Despite the multiple ways in which oxytocin may influence sleep and dreams, no study, as far as I know, has directly examined effects of oxytocin administration on sleep and dreams.


    I suspect OT dramatically influences the social emotions we find in dreams. If OT influences social emotions in waking life there is no reason to believe it doesn't do so in dreams.
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    I just took 20mcg oxytocin and slept like a baby. I'm still bed ridden with a bad flu. The oxytocin at 20mcg gave be a mild flushing, then I was out with vivid dreams. I woke up talking to myself because the dreams were so real. There weren't negatives sides at this dose.
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    Now that I am using a lower dose of oxytocin, I consistently get a mild flush followed by a very relaxed feeling, then I fall asleep and have dreams that are quite noticeably different than usual. I wake up and have found myself talking out loud, or not sure I'm awake. It's a deeper level of sleep.
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    Man did I have weird dreams from oxytocin last night. The dreams seem so real it confuses the mind. I woke up gasping for air because I dreamed I was underwater and couldn't get to the underwater dive tank to get oxygen, it was a long way from me. I literally was holding my breath for a long, long time while I was asleep because I thought it was real. I also woke up talking to myself again. I notice I moaned out loud a lot because I could hear myself in my sleep. Must be some deep state of sleep going on.


    I am recovering so damn slow from this flu bug but I'm hoping I can start up my training and Igf by Monday. I haven't taken my gear inject in 10 days. That's a new record for me. This bug attacked my kidneys hard so
    not about to take AAS til I'm better.
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    Oxytocin is the one nice thing I can play with while I'm sick. It relaxes me and gives me much deeper sleep. So, here we go.... Going to have a protein drink and take a fat dose of 100mcg. I'm getting more comfortable with oxytocin so I'm bumping it up a bit. Crazy dream time!!!
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    Took 20mcg oxytocin last night. My dreams were so vivid and life like. It's hard to describe the feeling. It's almost like the dream world is actually reality. I find myself talking out loud in my sleep. Last night I had vivid dreams with a hot girl
    i used to work with in them. This compound makes me wack off a lot. Hahaha
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    There is a log going on another site for out oxytocin and they are loving it
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    Just took a fat 50mcg dose of oxytocin. Bring on the crazy dreams...
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    Last night's dreams were so real!!! I dreamed I was playing with my favorite cat I had in high school. I miss that cat!
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    The acute effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on endocrine and sexual function in males.


    AuthorsBurri A, et al. Show all Journal
    Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008 Jun;33(5):591-600. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.01.014. Epub 2008 Mar 28.


    Affiliation
    Abstract
    The role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) ranges from the modulation of neuroendocrine physiological effects to the establishment of complex social and bonding behaviours. Experimental studies in animals, as well as case reports in humans, suggest that OT affects different aspects of sexual behaviour and has predominantly facilitating properties for sexual appetence and performance. Using a previously established experimental paradigm of sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm, this study investigated the acute effects of intranasal OT application (24I.U.) on endocrine parameters and measures of sexual appetence and function in healthy men (n=10). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over design, sexual arousal, and orgasm were induced by an erotic film and masturbation. In addition to the continuous recording of endocrine (OT, cortisol, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine) and cardiovascular data (heart rate), parameters of appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour were assessed using the acute sexual experience scale (ASES). OT plasma levels were significantly elevated after intranasal OT throughout the whole experiment (>60 min). In addition, OT treatment induced significantly higher increases in epinephrine plasma levels during sexual activity without affecting cortisol levels, prolactin levels or heart rate. OT treatment did not alter appetitive, consummatory, and refractory sexual behaviour according to the ASES. However, when subjects were asked about their subjective perception of whether OT or placebo had been applied, eight out of 10 subjects in the OT group answered correctly, thus pointing to an altered perception of arousal. In conclusion, intranasally administered OT leads to a marked increase in OT plasma levels together with increased secretion of catecholamines when subjects are engaged in sexual activity in a laboratory setting. As the effects of OT on sexual behaviour were equivocal, future studies should examine possible facilitating effects further by including males, females, and couples in a field setting, taking into account that OT exerts the most prominent behavioural effects in pair bond formations.
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    This does sound like it would be lots of fun
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    It's been giving me crazy dreams about cats. I love cats so much! Last night in my dream I was partying with my cat. Hahahaha. Bizarre!!!!
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    Interactions between dopamine and oxytocin in the control of sexual behaviour.


    AuthorsBaskerville TA, et al. Show all Journal
    Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:277-90. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00423-8.


    SAffiliation
    Abstract
    Dopamine and oxytocin are two key neuromodulators involved in reproductive behaviours, such as mating and maternal care. Much evidence underlies their separate roles in such behaviours, but particularly in sexual behaviour. It is generally believed that central dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems work together to regulate the expression of penile erection, but relatively little is known regarding how they interact. Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We also aim to provide an overview of potential dopamine-mediated transduction pathways that occur within these nuclei and are correlated with the exhibition of penile erection. The PVN provides the most convincing evidence for a dopamine-oxytocin link and it is becoming increasingly apparent that parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN, in part, mediate the effects of dopamine to elicit penile erection. However, while we show that oxytocin neurons express dopamine receptors, other evidence on whether dopaminergic activation of PVN oxytocin cells involves a direct and/or indirect mechanism is inconclusive and further evidence is required to establish whether the two systems interact synergistically or sequentially in the regulation of penile erection.
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    Comparing urine levels of oxytocin and a related hormone called vasopressin in biological and adoptive children who lived in Russian and Romanian orphanages, researchers found that oxytocin rose in biological children after having contact with their mothers. The study, published in 2005 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that oxytocin levels remained static in the adoptive children in the same situation, suggesting a physiological basis for why some adoptive children have difficulty forming secure relationships.
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    There is a lot of interest regarding oxytocin now. Looking forward to reading more real life experiences from testers
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    Those with PTSD are in a constant state of anxiety and low-grade fear. This anxiety can climax when startled or in trigger situations. It has been found that oxytocin reduces background anxiety in those with PTSD
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    During sexual arousal in men, lots of oxytocin is released.

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    Any one know how this affects women? I know it's related to labor and uterin contractions and breast feeding.

    Would it increase desire for sexual contact in women?
    This could possibly be a replacement for low dose Celexa then, which kills sex drive. Lower pain, less fear and anxiety and good sex drive?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Daniel11 View Post
    Any one know how this affects women? I know it's related to labor and uterin contractions and breast feeding.

    Would it increase desire for sexual contact in women?
    This could possibly be a replacement for low dose Celexa then, which kills sex drive. Lower pain, less fear and anxiety and good sex drive?
    From what I've read it will make women feeling more intimate. A study showed that when you hug a women for 20 seconds she begins secreting oxytocin. It establishes a bond which draws her to you emotionally. They say oxytocin is what causes women to fall in love. Love and sex go hand in hand with women as they tend to tie emotions to sex.

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    Oxytocin is also thought to modulate inflammation by decreasing certain cytokines. Thus, the increased release in oxytocin following positive social interactions has the potential to improve wound healing.

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    Oxytocin increases trust in humans.


    AuthorsKosfeld M, et al. Show all Journal
    Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):673-6.


    Affiliation
    Comment in
    Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):571-2.
    Rev Med Suisse. 2005 Jun 8;1(23):1592.
    Abstract
    Trust pervades human societies. Trust is indispensable in friendship, love, families and organizations, and plays a key role in economic exchange and politics. In the absence of trust among trading partners, market transactions break down. In the absence of trust in a country's institutions and leaders, political legitimacy breaks down. Much recent evidence indicates that trust contributes to economic, political and social success. Little is known, however, about the biological basis of trust among humans. Here we show that intranasal administration of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that plays a key role in social attachment and affiliation in non-human mammals, causes a substantial increase in trust among humans, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. We also show that the effect of oxytocin on trust is not due to a general increase in the readiness to bear risks. On the contrary, oxytocin specifically affects an individual's willingness to accept social risks arising through interpersonal interactions. These results concur with animal research suggesting an essential role for oxytocin as a biological basis of prosocial approach behaviour.
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    MALE ANORGASMIA TREATED WITH OXYTOCIN




    ABSTRACT


    Introduction.  This is a case report on male anorgasmia that was successfully treated with oxytocin. Oxytocin is increased during arousal and peaks during orgasm. More recently, a study on humans published in Nature has shown its value in social bonding, increasing trust, and enhancing the sense of well-being.



    Aim.  To test the effectiveness of administering oxytocin in a case of treatment-resistant anorgasmia.


    Methods.  The patient underwent a biopsychosocial evaluation by a psychiatrist trained in sexual medicine and sex therapy for male orgasmic disorder, acquired type. Medical conditions, effect of substances, and psychological issues were ruled out. The patient was properly consented to using oxytocin as an off-label trial. Oxytocin was administered using a nasal spray intracoitally because of its ultra-short half-life.


    Results.  Oxytocin was effective in restoring ejaculation.
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    [Oxytocin, a mediator of anti-stress, well-being, social interaction, growth and healing].


    AuthorsUvnas-Moberg K, et al. Show all Journal
    Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2005;51(1):57-80. Article in German.


    Affiliation
    Abstract
    The neuroendocrine and physiological systems related to pain and stress have long been subjected to study. More recently, the corresponding systems promoting anti-stress and restoration have also come into focus. It is not only important to investigate the mechanisms underlying disease but also to examine the physiological and psychological mechanisms which protect and heal the body and soul. The nonapeptide oxytocin, originally known to stimulate labour and milk ejection, appears to play an important role in this regard. Oxytocin can induce anti-stress-like effects such as reduction of blood pressure and cortisol levels. It increases pain thresholds, exerts an anxiolytic-like effect and stimulates various types of positive social interaction. In addition, it promotes growth and healing. Repeated exposure to oxytocin causes long-lasting effects by influencing the activity of other transmitter systems, a pattern which makes oxytocin potentially clinically relevant. Oxytocin can be released by various types of non-noxious sensory stimulation, for example by touch and warmth. Ingestion of food triggers oxytocin release by activation of vagal afferents. Most likely, oxytocin can also be released by stimulation of other senses such as olfaction, as well as by certain types of sound and light. In addition, purely psychological mechanisms may trigger the release of oxytocin. This means that positive interaction involving touch and psychological support may be health-promoting. The social interaction of daily life, as well as a positive environment, continuously activate this system. In addition, various types of psychotherapy involving transfer of support, warmth and empathy are likely to induce similar effects, which thus contribute to the positive effects of these kinds of therapies.
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    Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner.


    AuthorsScheele D, et al. Show all Journal
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 10;110(50):20308-13. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314190110. Epub 2013 Nov 25.


    Affiliation
    Abstract
    The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women. This enhanced positive partner bias was paralleled by an increased response to partner stimuli compared with unfamiliar women in brain reward regions including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the left NAcc, OXT even augmented the neural response to the partner compared with a familiar woman, indicating that this finding is partner-bond specific rather than due to familiarity. Taken together, our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women.
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    Intracerebral oxytocin modulates sleep-wake behaviour in male rats.


    AuthorsLancel M, et al. Show all Journal
    Regul Pept. 2003 Jul 15;114(2-3):145-52.


    Affiliation
    Abstract
    Oxytocin released within the brain under basal conditions and in response to stress is differentially involved in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Because the HPA axis plays an important role in the regulation of wakefulness, central oxytocin may modulate sleep-wake behaviour. In the present vehicle-controlled study, we assessed the influence of a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist (des-Gly-NH2d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)2,Thr4] OVT; 0.75 microg/5 microl) or of synthetic oxytocin (0.1 microg and 1 microg/5 microl), infused into the lateral ventricle (i.c.v.), on the sleep pattern in male Wistar rats (n=7). Compared to vehicle, the oxytocin antagonist slightly but persistently increased wakefulness at the expense of all sleep states. This finding indicates that endogenous brain oxytocin promotes sleep. However, acute icv infusion of oxytocin delayed sleep onset latency, which resulted in a transient reduction of non-REMS and REMS, and augmented high-frequency activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) within non-REMS. These observations agree with previous reports that icv oxytocin induces a state of arousal. Based on these findings, we postulate that oxytocin has a dual mechanism of action in dependence of the physiological state. Under basal, stress-free conditions, endogenous oxytocin may promote sleep. Conversely, the high brain levels of oxytocin after central oxytocin infusion may reflect a condition of stress accompanied by behavioural arousal and, possibly via an excitatory action on the CRH system, increase vigilance.
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    Oxytocin as a novel therapeutic option for type I diabetes and diabetic osteopathy.


    AuthorsElabd SK, et al. Show all Journal
    Endocr Regul. 2014;48(2):87-102.


    Affiliation
    Abstract


    Objective. The aim of the present study was to highlight the newly discovered metabolic role of oxytocin (OT) in the type I diabetic rats. Previous studies have demonstrated that OT has a beneficial role on bone physiology and therefore, the OT effect on the diabetic osteopathy will be assessed as well.Methods. Induction of the type I diabetes was carried out by an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. The metabolic role of OT on diabetic rats after OT treatment with intramuscular injection of 40 µIU/kg body weight for 6 weeks was assessed. Histological and ultrastructural studies of rat pancreas samples, before and after the OT injection, were performed and compared with the obtained physiological results.Results. Oxytocin treatment had positive metabolic effects in diabetic rats. This is based on the change in glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity in experimental animals. In addition, OT treatment showed histological regenerative changes of pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. Moreover, OT administration showed that it has an anabolic effect on the bone biology.


    Conclusions. The results suggest that activation of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) pathway by infusion of OT, OT analogs, or OT agonists may represent a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications, including diabetic osteopathy. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic osteopathy, pancreas histology, streptozotocin, oxytocin, insulin, adiponectin, leptin.
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    Mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of oxytocin in diet-induced obese rats.


    AuthorsDeblon N, et al. Show all Journal
    PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025565. Epub 2011 Sep 27.


    Affiliation
    Abstract
    Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of oxytocin. Chronic central oxytocin infusion was carried out in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity was determined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain, increased adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The additional observation that plasma oxytocin levels increased upon central infusion suggested that the hormone might affect adipose tissue metabolism by direct action. This was demonstrated using in vitro, ex vivo, as well as in vivo experiments. With regard to its mechanism of action in adipose tissue, oxytocin increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, as well as the tissue content of the phospholipid precursor, N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the biosynthetic precursor of the oleic acid-derived PPAR-alpha activator, oleoylethanolamide. Because PPAR-alpha regulates fatty acid β-oxidation, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might mediate the oxytocin effects. This was substantiated by the observation that, in contrast to its effects in wild-type mice, oxytocin infusion failed to induce weight loss and fat oxidation in PPAR-alpha-deficient animals. Altogether, these results suggest that oxytocin administration could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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