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ldog's Health, wellness and HRT thread (By team PSL)

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  1. #1
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    ldog's Health, wellness and HRT thread (By team PSL)

    PSL Rep - ldog's

    This thread is for general info with questions or concerns regarding Men's health (women included),wellness,HRT and/or anything else within the spectrum

    The team here cares about YOUR HEALTH, to all of our customers/clients and friends alike we include this for everyone whether your a world renowned athlete, die hard fitness addict,or merely someone looking for some advise to boast their training regime from a young athlete or to an older lion still wanting to maintain their health but look the best they can, even if you are a female athlete, this section has been constructed for your needs!


    Also for your pleasure and convenience we would like you to know that our staff here at PSL are very well established, well rounded and very diversified in many aspect of this lifestyle,you can interact/speak with any of our professionals at any time..If you have a story or simply wish to give feedback or suggestions, here is your HUB!

    Warmest Regards,
    Vision

    "Commit to be fit,stay strong and live long"




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    idog - what is the ideal HRT dose for a 40 year old?

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    This should be good can't wait to learn some new information thanks for doing this

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    Yo Captn...sorry for the delay. It really depends on the person. The more important question is....what T levels are optimal for each person. For me...it's 1200. For others it's 800....and even others will argue for 500. It's very debatable.

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    Cholesterol, blood lipids and Oral Anabolic Steroids?..How to minimize the sides.



    As we all know, Oral Anabolic Steroids can have an adverse effect on the lipids of each user. While everyone is different in their genetic makeup, most of us who use orals will see a reduction in HDL(Good Cholesterol) and a rise in LDL(Bad Cholesterol). Triglycerides will also be impacted by. With that said, certain orals have a greater tendency to effect lipids over others. Before we move forward, let?s get a clear picture of what each lipoprotein is responsible for and its role in our bodies (courtesyof American Heart Association):





    LDL(Bad) Cholesterol

    LDLcholesterol is considered the ?bad? cholesterol because it contributes toplaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog arteries and make them lessflexible.This condition is known as atherosclerosis. If a clot forms andblocks a narrowed artery, heart attack or stroke canresult. Another condition called peripheral artery disease can develop whenplaque buildup narrows an artery supplying blood to the legs.

    HDL(Good) Cholesterol
    HDLcholesterol is considered ?good? cholesterol because it helps remove LDLcholesterol from the arteries. Experts believe HDL acts as a scavenger,carrying LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where itis broken down and passed from the body. One-fourth to one-third of bloodcholesterol is carried by HDL. A healthy level of HDL cholesterol may alsoprotect against heart attack and stroke, while low levels of HDLcholesterol have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease.

    Triglycerides

    Triglycerides are another type of fat,and they?re used to store excess energy from your diet. High levels oftriglycerides in the blood are associated with atherosclerosis. Elevatedtriglycerides can be caused by overweight and obesity, physical inactivity,cigarette smoking, excess alcohol consumption and a diet very high incarbohydrates (more than 60 percent of total calories). Underlying diseases orgenetic disorders are sometimes the cause of high triglycerides. People withhigh triglycerides often have a high total cholesterol level, including a highLDL cholesterol (bad) level and a low HDL cholesterol (good) level. Many peoplewith heart disease or diabetes also have high triglyceride levels.


    Now that we?re educated, what are some ways that the user can minimize the side effects of Oral Anabolic Steroids onthe lipid profile?

    1)Omega 3 Fish Oil-This supplement has been recommended bymany doctors as well as the American Heart Association for its ability to helpslow the development of plaque in the arteries, reduce triglycerides levels andassist with lowering blood pressure. There are a wide variety of options whenit comes to purchasing this supplement. With Omega 3 Fish Oil, quality is notsomething that you want to compromise on. While quality Omega 3 Fish Oil israther expensive, it?s well worth the money. As with all supplements be sure tolook for the USP certification on the bottle (http://www.usp.org/usp-verification-services/usp-verified-dietary-supplements.)

    Below is an excellent article from the Mayo Clinic reading the benefits of Fish Oil:


    Evidence

    These uses have beentested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not alwaysbeen proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and shouldbe evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    Key to grades
    A
    Strong scientific evidence for this use

    B
    Good scientific evidence for this use
    C
    Unclear scientific evidence for this use
    D

    Fair scientific evidence against this use(it may not work)
    F
    Strong scientific evidence against this use(it likely does not work)
    Gradingrationale
    Evidence grade Condition to which grade level applies
    A Coronary heart disease
    Evidence suggests that people who have low levels of EPA and DHA may have a higher risk of coronary heart disease and heart failure. Clinical trials suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may have benefits in terms of reducing total and heart disease mortality (death). It is believed that omega-3 fatty acids may help lower triglycerides and inflammation. Daily intake has been linked to a reduced risk of sudden heart failure.
    A High blood pressure
    Many studies report that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce blood pressure. However, effects have generally been small, and other trials reported no benefit. Effects may be greater in people who have higher blood pressure and may depend on the dose. DHA may have greater benefits than EPA.
    A Hyperlipidemia (triglyceride lowering)
    There is strong scientific evidence that omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil supplements can significantly reduce triglyceride levels. Higher doses have been found to have greater effects, and a dose of four grams daily may lower triglyceride levels by up to 40%. Effects may be increased when taken with statin drugs such as simvastatin and atorvastatin.It is unclear how fish oil therapy compares to other agents used to lower triglycerides. Some studies suggest that fish oil may increase LDL levels.
    A Rheumatoid arthritis
    Many studies report improvements in morning stiffness and joint tenderness with regular intake of fish oil supplements for up to three months. Benefits may increase with use of anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. Benefits have also been seen with fish oil given through an intravenous tube. Fish oil has been found to have effects on the immune system and on fats in the blood in people with rheumatoid arthritis. However, effects beyond three months of treatment are unclear. More research is needed before a firm conclusion may be made.
    A Secondary cardiovascular disease prevention (fish oil / EPA plus DHA)
    Fish oil has been studied for use in protecting people who have had past heart problems from new ones, such as heart attack or sudden death.Many studies report that regularly eating oily fish or taking fish oil supplements may help reduce the risk of nonfatal and fatal heart attack, sudden death, and mortality in people with a history of heart attack. There is evidence that an increased intake of fish or omega-3 may be linked to a lower risk of heart failure. These therapies may add to the effects of other treatments, and benefits have been reported after three months of use.
    C Abnormal heart rhythms
    There is promising evidence that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of abnormal heart rhythms. This effect is believed to contribute to the reduced number of heart attacks in people who regularly consume fish oil or EPA and DHA. However, not all studies have found positive results, as some reported that fish oil may be linked to abnormal heart rate in older people and people with a history of some heart problems. More studies are needed in this area before a firm conclusion may be made.
    C Acute respiratory distress syndrome (low oxygen in blood)
    Early evidence suggests that taking fish oil may benefit adults who have acute respiratory distress syndrome. More research is needed to confirm this finding.
    C Age-related macular degeneration (loss of vision)
    There is evidence that a diet high in omega-3 may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A combination product called Photorop, which contains omega-3, has been studied for use in people with this eye disease. DHA has been found to benefit eye health in nonsmoking older women. However, evidence on the use of omega-3 alone is limited. More studies are needed in this area.
    C Aggression
    Early research suggests that fish oil may reduce stress-related aggression and help regulate mood and impulse control. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
    C AIDS/HIV
    Studies looking at the use of fish oil combined with other nutritional supplements in people with HIV have found conflicting results. More information is needed on the potential benefits of fish oil alone in this population.
    C Allergies
    Research suggests that eating fish at least once per week may reduce the risk of eczema, an allergic condition causing dry and itchy skin, in children. However, a significant link between mother's fish intake and child eczema was lacking. Evidence is mixed in terms of whether mother's consumption of omega-3 may have effects on allergies in the infant. More research is needed in this area.
    C Antisocial personality disorder
    Limited research suggests that omega-3 may help reduce some symptoms of personality disorder. However, more research is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
    C Anxiety
    Omega-3 has been found to reduce tension in people attending an abuse clinic. More studies are needed in this area.
    C Asthma
    There is conflicting evidence on the use of omega-3 for asthma. More research is needed before conclusions can be made.
    C Athletic performance
    Research is limited on the use of fish oil for the improvement of athletic performance. Omega-3 has been found to have benefits on lung function in wrestlers and may improve muscle soreness. However, more studies are needed in this area.
    C Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Fish oil may help increase levels of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 fatty acids in people who have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which has been linked to lower omega-3 levels. However, significant differences were found to be lacking between healthy people and those with mental health problems such as dementia, ADHD, and depression. A combination product containing both omega-6 and omega-3 has been found to benefit people with ADHD. An Indonesian study reported that DHA-rich fish oil improved school attendance. More research is needed to determine the effect of omega-3 on learning and behavioral problems in ADHD.
    C Autism
    Fish oil has been shown to help improve levels of omega-3 in people who have autism. However, conclusions are lacking in terms of benefits of omega-3 for autism. More research is needed.
    C Bipolar disorder
    There is limited evidence to support the use of fish oil for bipolar disorder. One study reported longer recovery periods with use of fish oil. However, other research has produced conflicting results. More studies are needed before firm conclusions can be made.
    C Cancer
    Conflicting results have been found for the effects of omega-3 on quality of life and mortality in people with cancer. More research is needed in this area.
    C Cancer prevention
    Several studies report that fish oil may reduce the risk of breast, colon, prostate, or other cancers. However, results have been conflicting. Further research is needed before the use of fish oil can be supported for this purpose.
    C Chest pain
    Early studies report a possible link between fish oil intake and reduced chest pain. More research is needed before further conclusions can be made.
    C Clogged arteries
    Early research suggests that regular intake of fish oil supplements may lower the risk of clogged arteries. The role of supplements in preventing and treating clogged arteries has also been studied. However, more evidence is needed before the use of omega-3 can be supported for this purpose.
    C Cognition
    EPA and DHA were found to lack effect on brain function in older people and healthy children. Some benefit was seen in children with metabolic disorders. More research is needed to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition in healthy people.
    C Critical illness
    Omega-3 fatty acids in combination with other nutrients may help reduce the risk of serious complications in acutely ill people. Some studies report that omega-3 may decrease inflammation and the length of hospital stay. However, other findings are mixed, and further research is needed to support the use of fish oil in people with critical illness.
    C Cystic fibrosis (disease of the lungs and digestive system)
    Limited research reports some benefit of fish oil for use in cystic fibrosis. However, evidence is still inconclusive, and more research is needed.
    C Dementia
    There is some evidence that regular fish and omega-3 fatty acid consumption may help reduce dementia risk. However, results are conflicting. One review reported that firm conclusions are lacking in terms of the potential benefits of omega-3 on Alzheimer's disease. Another study found that omega-3 may help improve weight and appetite in people with Alzheimer's. Other studies found that significant differences were lacking between healthy people and those with mental health problems such as dementia and depression. While some findings are promising, more research is needed in this area.
    C Depression
    There is inconclusive evidence to support the use of fish oil in people who have depression, although some early results are promising. Low levels of DHA and omega-3 have been linked to predicted suicide, and lower EPA has been linked to depressive symptoms in older people. Dietary intakes of fish and omega-3 have been found to help reduce depressive symptoms in women. Some studies report that fish and fish oil may help reduce risk of psychiatric disorders (including depression), as well as depression in people with heart disorders or type 2 diabetes. Omega-3 may benefit women who have depression in after giving birth. EPA is thought to have greater benefit than DHA. More research is needed.
    C Dialysis
    Early evidence reports that fish oil may lack significant benefit in people on dialysis. People undergoing dialysis have been found to consume less omega-3 in the diet, and the possible link between omega-3 and mortality in this population has been studied. More research is needed to understand the potential benefits of fish oil use in these people.
    C Dyslexia
    Early studies have found that a combination treatment containing EPA may lack benefit in dyslexic children with reading and spelling problems. More research is needed in this area.
    C Eczema
    There is evidence that taking fish oil in infancy may help prevent the development of eczema, an itchy skin condition. Studies suggest that fish consumption in infancy may be more important than the mother's fish intake during pregnancy. However, results are still inconclusive at this time, and more information is needed.
    C Energy
    Studies suggest that athletes who take fish oil may reduce oxygen consumption during exercise. However, other research has found a lack of effect of fish oil on energy or metabolism in healthy people. Further research is needed.
    C Epilepsy
    Omega-3 supplements may help improve brain energy and health in people who have epilepsy. More research is needed to determine whether omega-3 may be an effective treatment for people with this condition.
    C Fatigue
    There is limited evidence supporting the use of fish oil and other essential fatty acids for treating chronic fatigue. More research is needed before conclusions can be made.
    C Heart disease (risk)
    Omega-3 fatty acids may benefit some heart disease risk factors. However, conclusive evidence is lacking. Some studies have found benefit for risk factors such as triglyceride levels, but more research is needed to determine whether the actual heart disease risk is reduced.
    C High blood pressure associated with pregnancy
    There is not enough evidence to support the use of fish oil for high blood pressure during pregnancy. Further research is needed in this area.
    C High cholesterol
    As discussed earlier, there is strong scientific evidence that omega-3 fatty acids from fish or fish oil supplements help reduce triglyceride levels. Some studies report that fish oil may increase LDL cholesterol, possibly by increasing the size of LDL particles. More research is needed to determine potential benefits of omega-3 for lowering cholesterol.
    C Immune function
    There is evidence that fish oil may help reduce inflammation. Although not well studied in humans, fish oil may also improve survival after infection, prolong survival after an organ transplant, and benefit autoimmune disease. More human research is needed in this area.
    C Infant development / neonatal care
    One study found that taking DHA during the first year of life may reduce time to the first occurrence of sitting without support. However, effects on other measures such as crawling or standing and walking alone were lacking. The use of omega-3 fatty acids has also been studied for health issues during infancy. Findings on the effects of omega-3 for later body composition of the infant are mixed. More research is needed.
    C Infant eye / brain development
    Early research suggests that DHA taken by pregnant and breastfeeding mothers may reduce the body mass index of infants. However, effects are lacking on length or head size of infants. The mother's fish oil intake during pregnancy has been found to lack effect on infant language development. The effect of DHA-enriched formulas has been studied for the safety, growth, and development of preterm and term infants. More research is needed in this area.
    C Inflammation
    Omega-3 fatty acids have been found to lack significant effects on inflammation and outcome in people in intensive care. Further research is needed.
    C Inflammatory bowel disease
    Many studies have looked at the possible benefit of omega-3 fatty acids in people who have inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, when used with standard therapy. Although some positive effects have been found, results are conflicting, and more evidence is needed.
    C Kidney disease (IgA nephropathy)
    Results are conflicting on the use of fish oil to treat IgA nephropathy, a kidney disease in which there is a buildup of IgA antibodies. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be made.
    C Kidney disorders (nephrotic syndrome)
    There is not enough reliable evidence to support the use of omega-3 for nephrotic syndrome, a condition in which kidney problems lead to high protein levels in urine. More research is needed in this area.
    C Kidney stones
    The effect of fish oil on kidney stones has limited clinical evidence. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.
    C Liver disease
    Early research reports that fish oil may help reduce liver disease linked to tube feeding in children. EPA has been studied for liver health in people who have nonalcoholic liver disease. A combination of both omega-3 and omega-6 used in tube feeding lacked evidence of a large benefit on recovery after a liver transplant. Further research is needed.
    C Lung conditions
    Omega-3 has been found to benefit people who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), a lung condition that makes it difficult to breathe. Further research is needed in order to confirm these findings.
    C Lupus (chronic disease causing inflammation)
    Reliable evidence is lacking to support the use of fish oil for people who have lupus. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.
    C Menopause
    Conclusions on the potential benefits of omega-3 for symptoms of menopause cannot be drawn at this time. Further research is needed.
    C Menstrual pain
    It has been suggested that omega-3 fatty acids may help manage painful menstrual cramps. Early evidence suggests that fish oil may benefit women who have menstrual pain. However, more research is needed before a firm conclusion can be made.
    C Migraine
    Omega-3 supplementation has been found to lack significant effect on migraines. More research is needed before a conclusion may be made.
    C Movement disorders
    Omega-3 fatty acids have been studied for use in children with dyspraxia, a movement disorder, with some benefits having been seen. However, more research is needed in this area.
    C Multiple sclerosis
    One study reported that a link between fatty acid levels and depression was lacking in people with multiple sclerosis. However, some omega-3 fatty acids were lower in those with the condition, compared to healthy controls. Early research has found a lack of benefit of omega-3 in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.
    C Neck/shoulder pain
    Early research suggests that omega-3 supplementation may help improve neck and shoulder pain. However, more well-designed trials are needed.
    C Nerve pain
    Omega-3 fatty acids may benefit people who have nerve pain caused by various conditions, including fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, and burn injury. More evidence is needed to support the use of omega-3 for this purpose.
    C Osteoarthritis
    Significant effects of fish oil were lacking on pain and functioning in people with osteoarthritis. Larger clinical trials are needed before a conclusion may be made.
    C Osteoporosis
    Some studies report a decreased risk of osteoporosis with fish intake and benefits of fish oil supplementation on bone health. Omega-3 intake has been linked to better bone density in older people, although there are some conflicting results. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in this area.
    C Overall well being
    One study found that children who drank chocolate milk supplemented with fish oil had fewer illnesses. However, more research is needed in this area.
    C Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
    Fish oil given with nutrition through tube feeding has been found to reduce the inflammatory response in people with pancreatitis. More research is needed in this field.
    C Peripheral vascular disease (blocked arteries in the legs)
    Some evidence suggests that fish oil may improve blood pressure in the legs of people who have peripheral vascular disease and improve the ability to walk long distances. However, more research is needed to better understand this effect.
    C Phenylketonuria (inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine)
    Low DHA levels are common among children with phenylketonuria (PKU) during the first year of life due to dietary restrictions. Early research suggests that supplementing with omega-3 during the first year of life may help improve fatty acids so that they are similar to those of healthy, breastfed infants. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain function in children with PKU are still unclear. More clinical research is needed.
    C Pregnancy and labor
    Early evidence suggests that fish oil may lack effect on the timing of spontaneous delivery. Fish intake in the third trimester has been linked to birthweight. Some studies report that intake of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of preterm (early) birth. However, there is some conflicting evidence. The effect of fish oil supplementation on labor and delivery is still uncertain at this time.
    C Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
    Early studies suggest that fish oil may help reduce emotional symptoms and menstrual cramps. More research is needed in this area.
    C Prevention of graft failure after heart bypass surgery
    There is limited research on the use of fish oils in people undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Early studies suggest small benefits in reducing blood clot formation in vein grafts. One review found that using EPA before the operation may have benefit. More research is needed before a firm conclusion can be made.
    C Prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    Several studies have looked at whether omega-3 fatty acid intake reduces restenosis, or blood vessel narrowing, after coronary angioplasty. Some research has reported small, significant benefits, while others have not found positive effects. The evidence in this area is still inconclusive at this time.
    C Primary cardiovascular disease prevention (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA])
    Research has found a reduced risk of fatal or nonfatal heart attack in people who regularly eat foods high in ALA. However, other studies have found conflicting evidence. More research is needed before a conclusion may be made in this area.
    C Prostate disorders
    There is limited evidence in support of the use of fish oil for prostate disorders. Clinical research suggests that EPA may lack significant effect. More research is needed to understand the effect of fish oil in people who have prostate disorders.
    C Psoriasis (autoimmune disease causing flaky, scaly skin)
    Several studies looking at psoriasis and fish oil do not provide enough reliable evidence to form a clear conclusion. Further research is needed before conclusions can be made.
    C Psychosis (loss of contact with reality)
    People who are at risk of psychosis may benefit from consuming omega-3 fatty acids. However, available information is based on limited research, some of which included people taking antipsychotic medications. More research is needed.
    C Quality of life
    Omega-3 fatty acids do not appear to improve quality of life in elderly people. More research is needed.
    C Raynaud's disease (blocked blood flow to the limbs)
    Early clinical evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may benefit people who have Raynaud's disease. More research is needed to better understand and confirm this finding.
    C Schizophrenia
    There is promising early evidence suggesting that EPA may benefit symptoms of schizophrenia. Clinical trials looking at omega-3 fatty acids that contain a mixture of EPA and DHA are limited, as most studies have looked at EPA alone. DHA levels may change in people who have schizophrenia. Further research is needed before a conclusion can be made.
    C Secondary cardiovascular disease prevention (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA])
    Several studies have looked at the effects of ALA in people with a history of heart attack. Although some studies suggest benefits, others do not. More research is needed before a conclusion may be made in this area.
    C Shock
    Early research found that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce mortality, antibiotic use, and length of hospital stay in people with sepsis, or shock. DHA was found to increase body fat and length in infants following sepsis. However, further research is needed in this area.
    C Sickle cell disease
    Limited evidence suggests that fish oil may benefit people who have sickle cell disease. More research is needed to determine dosing, side effects, and benefits on other sickle cell symptoms.
    C Stroke prevention
    Several large studies have looked at the effects of omega-3 fatty acid intake on stroke risk. Some studies suggest benefits, while others do not. Very large intakes of omega-3 fatty acids may actually increase the risk of stroke. It is unclear if there are benefits in people with or without a history of stroke, or if effects of fish oil are comparable to other treatments.
    C Sun protection
    Treatment with fish oil may help reduce inflammation caused by the sun in people who have polymorphic light eruption, a condition in which sunlight causes skin rashes. Further research is needed.
    C Surgical recovery
    A combination product containing omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to improve inflammation and immune responses before and after surgery. However, in early research, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids were mixed on reduced mortality (death), antibiotic use, and length of hospital stay after stomach surgery. More research is needed.
    C Tardive dyskinesia (uncontrolled, repetitive movements)
    Evidence of a link between fatty acid levels, schizophrenia, and movement disorders is inconclusive. Further research is needed in this area.
    C Toxicity
    Many studies have looked at the effects of fish oil supplements on toxicity in people who are given drugs that affect the immune system, such as cyclosporine (Neoral?). Most trials report improved kidney function. Although more recent studies report a lack of kidney benefits, the weight of scientific evidence supports the positive effects of fish oil.
    C Vasodilator (widens blood vessels)
    In early research, omega-3 fatty acids increased forearm blood flow in people with chronic heart failure. Fish oil appeared to have more significant effects in younger men, compared to older men. More information is needed in this area.
    C Weight loss
    Dietary fish has been found to increase the effects of a weight loss program in improving metabolism and cholesterol in obese people. One study reported that fish oil supplementation helped lower fat mass, but combined studies found a lack of effect on weight loss. Research has looked at the effect of omega-3 on weight gain, due to the calorie content of omega-3 fatty acids. When taken with fenofibrate for up to 16 weeks, there was a lack of weight gain. Further research is needed to understand the potential benefits of omega-3 for weight loss.
    C Wound healing
    Although it has not been well studied in humans, some research suggests that applying fish oil to the skin may increase wound healing. Early human research reports that omega-3 fatty acids may lack this benefit. More well-designed studies are needed to determine the potential effects of omega-3 for this purpose in humans.
    D Appetite / weight loss in cancer patients
    There is mixed evidence in support of fish oil use for improving appetite or preventing weight loss in people with cancer.
    D Diabetes
    Available evidence suggests that significant long-term effects of fish oil in people with diabetes are lacking. The effects of fish oil on high triglycerides were similar in people with or without diabetes. Higher consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish did not appear to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in some studies but did modestly increase its risk in others. Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been studied in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.
    D Transplant rejection prevention
    Many studies have looked at the effects of fish oil in people who received a heart or kidney transplant and were taking cyclosporine (Neoral?). The majority of trials reported improved kidney function and less high blood pressure, compared to people not taking fish oil. However, several recent studies reported no benefits to kidney function, and no changes have been found in rates of rejection or graft survival.



    2)Cardio-While to some this is a feared word, it really shouldn?t be. In fact, if you?re going to cycle any Oral Anabolic Steroid then it?s in your best interest to maintain some type of weekly cardio.Not only will it have a positive effect on mood and well-being, its benefits on blood lipids are well known. Cardio can play a profound role in countering someof the negative attributes of orals. Cardio is one of the most important things you can do to help maintain positive lipidvalues. Below you will find a few articles which speak to the benefit of cardio on blood lipids:
    Here is an excerpt from WebMD which is worthy of reading:

    ExerciseTo Lower Cholesterol
    By Susan Davis
    WebMD Feature

    Reviewed by Cynthia Dennison Haines,MD
    WebMD Feature Archive
    You may have heard that exercise is one of the best ways to lower your cholesterol. But how does it work? And what typeof exercise is most effective?
    The Exercise-Cholesterol Link
    Researchers aren't entirely sure howexercise lowers cholesterol, but they are beginning to have aclearer idea. "Lots of people, even lots of doctors, assume that exerciselowers cholesterol," says Amit Khera, MD, director of the University ofTexas, Southwestern, Medical Center's Program in Preventive Cardiology."But until recently, most of us weren't sure just what the connectionwas."
    One way exercise can help lower cholesterol is by helping you lose -- ormaintain -- weight. Being overweighttends to increase the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in your blood, the kind of lipoprotein that's been linkedto heart disease.
    Part of the confusion about theeffect of exercise on cholesterol stems from the fact that most earlycholesterol studies focused on both exercise and dietary changes, making ithard to tease out which of these factors was actually making the difference.But recent studies have more carefully examined the effect of exercise alone,making it easier to evaluate the relationship between exercise and cholesterol.
    Researchers now believe there areseveral mechanisms involved. First, exercise stimulates enzymes that help move LDL from the blood (and blood-vessel walls) to the liver. From there, the cholesterol is convertedinto bile (for digestion) or excreted. So the more you exercise, the more LDL your body expels.
    Second, exercise increases the sizeof the protein particles that carry cholesterol through the blood. (Thecombination of protein particles and cholesterol are called"lipoproteins;" it's the LDLs that have been linked to heart disease). Some of those particles are smalland dense; some are big and fluffy. "The small, dense particles are moredangerous than the big, fluffy ones because the smaller ones can squeeze intothe [linings of the heart and blood vessels] and set up shopthere," says Khera. "But now it appears that exercise increases thesize of the protein particles that carry both good and bad lipoproteins."
    HowMuch Exercise Does It Take To Lower Cholesterol?
    Exactly how much exercise is neededto lower cholesterol has been a matter of some debate. In general, most publichealth organizations recommend, at a minimum, 30 minutes per day of moderate tovigorous exercise, such as walking, jogging, biking, or gardening.
    But a 2002 study by researchers atDuke University Medical Center found that more intense exercise is actuallybetter than moderate exercise for lowering cholesterol. In a study of overweight, sedentary people who did not changetheir diet, the researchers found that those who got moderate exercise (theequivalent of 12 miles of walking or jogging per week) did lower their LDLlevel somewhat. But the people who did more vigorous exercise (the equivalentof 20 miles of jogging a week) lowered it even more.
    The people who exercised vigorouslyalso raised their levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -- the "good"kind of lipoprotein that actually helps clear cholesterol from the blood."We found it requires a good amount of high intensity exercise tosignificantly change HDL," saysWilliam Kraus, MD, an assistant professorof medicine at Duke and the lead author on the study. "Just walking is notenough."
    According to Kraus's findings,however, even though moderate exercise was not as effective in reducing LDL orincreasing HDL, it did keep cholesterol levels from rising.
    Bottom line? Some exercise is betterthan none; more exercise is better than some.
    How Much Will It Help?
    Just how much of an effect exercisehas on cholesterol is also a matter of debate. "We've found that thepeople who benefit the most are those who had the worst diet andexercise habits to begin with," says Roger Blumenthal, MD,director of the Ciccarone Preventive Cardiology Center at Johns Hopkins University."Some of those people reduce their LDL by 10-15% and increase their HDL by20%."


    3)Diet-Next to cardio, diet is the single mostimportant factor that you have at your disposal to help counter a negative lipid panel. A diet high in fiber, Omega 3 fatty acids, various nuts, Olive oil,plant sterols and various fruits all play a pivotal role in maintaining positive blood markers. See below regarding foods that we should focus on to manage our lipid values.


    Super Foodsfor Lower Cholesterol and Heart Health
    By John Donovan, Reviewed by Kathleen M. Zelman, MPH, RD, LDon July 22, 2015

    Salmon
    Research has shown that omega-3 fatty acids are seriouslyheart-friendly. They help lower levels of LDL (?bad?) cholesterol andtriglycerides, slow the rate at which plaque builds up in your arteries, andcan bring down your blood pressure. Some of the top sources of omega-3s arefatty fish, particularly salmon, but also other varieties like tuna, trout, andherring.
    Oils
    You can make that veggie stir-fry even healthier bycooking it in plant-based oils, many of which are rich in omega-3s. Some of thebest: flaxseed, walnut, canola, and soybean oil. Just be sure to mind yourportion sizes, since even a small drizzle can pack a splash of calories.
    Whole-Grain Breads and Cereals
    Studies show that dietary fiber can lower LDLcholesterol, but most Americans aren?t eating nearly enough. To get more, skiprefined grains with ?enriched? flours in favor of labels that say ?wholegrains.? Breakfast is the perfect time to get a fiber boost. Try switching tooatmeal, whole wheat toast, or bran flakes cereal.
    Berries
    All fruits have some fiber. A banana, an apple, anorange, and a grapefruit each have about 3 grams, though you?ll have to eat thewhole thing (orange juice, for example, has just half a gram of fiber per cup).Grab a handful of blueberries (which have 4 grams per cup) or raspberries(which have 8 grams per cup), though, and you?ll hit a fiber mother lode.
    Avocados
    These creamy fruits are a terrific way to get morehealthy unsaturated fats into your diet. Research suggests that eating anavocado a day can help lower LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese people.Though guacamole is delicious, it?s easy to eat half a bag of chips along withit. Try dipping carrots in it, or have sliced avocados on whole-grainsandwiches or in salads.
    Beans
    Whether you choose pinto, kidney, or black varieties,beans are one of the best sources of fiber. For a one-two boost to hearthealth, replace meat in your diet with beans. ?You?ll add a tremendous amountof fiber, and lower your intake of cholesterol and saturated fat,? says JoanSalge Blake, clinical associate professor at Boston University's SargentCollege of Health. Try them in place of ground beef in chili, or swap out yourusual hamburger for a black bean patty.
    Nuts
    Once dismissed for their high fat content, nuts are nowhailed for their powerhouse nutritional benefits, including lots of protein,fiber, and healthy unsaturated fats. Try snacking on a handful of walnuts,almonds, or cashews, or sprinkling them over yogurt, cereal, and salads.
    Chocolate
    It?s true, even dessert can be heart-healthy. The cocoa beancontains antioxidants called flavonoids that fight cholesterol. Generally, thehigher the cocoa content, the more antioxidants you?re getting, so reach fordark over milk chocolate, and don?t eat too much.
    Spinach
    All vegetables contain cholesterol-lowering fiber, butspinach is a particularly great source, with 6 grams per cup. If your greenstend to wilt in the fridge before you can finish them, remember: The frozenvariety has just as much fiber and nutrients as fresh.

    Ldog

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    PSL Current and Future Teammates,

    Just a little idea for my brothers:


    I've noticed many comments on this forum and others about adding different items to their weekly TRT protocol.

    I recently(1 1/2 months ago) concluded a 7-8 month protocol of 300mg per week Test C(200mg of which is TRT) combined with 10mg of quality Dianabol pre workout. This protocol helped with a little kick in my workout, slightly assisted with recovery and helped keep my muscles full. This is in addition to the mental well being that Dianabol provided. While this protocol is not for everyone, It did work for me and I really enjoyed the ride. I monitored my bloodwork bi monthly and aside from Cholesterol levels, my bloodwork was solid. In the near future, I'm going to restart this protocol using EP Dianabol. I've heard great things about this product.


    My two cents.
    L

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    PSL Teammates,

    I found this article and wanted to share....very interesting.

    Eleven body fluids we couldn't live without

    November 3, 2015 by Richard Gunderman, The Conversation


    Blood is just one of the body fluids we need to survive. Credit: www.shutterstock.com How is a human being like a fish?



    Just as a fish never stops to think about the water in which it spends its entire life, so do many human beings rarely pause to consider the body fluids that make our lives possible.
    Though not always fit for polite conversation, even the less pleasant among them play a crucial role in maintaining health. By learning a bit more about 11 of these body fluids, we can develop a deeper appreciation for the beauty and complexity of our own biology. What exactly are these fluids, and what often unheralded contributions do they make?
    1. Bile
    Bile is a brown to dark green fluid that is produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder (a synonym for bile is gall), and released into the intestines when we eat. It is partly responsible for the color of vomitus and stool. Its most important ingredient is bile salts, which function like soap to break down dietary fats, enabling them and fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D and E to be absorbed. They also help to prevent the cholesterol-containing bile in the gallbladder from forming gallstones.
    Curiously, about 15 grams of bile salts are excreted into the intestine each day, yet the human body contains only about five grams in total. How is this possible? The answer is that bile salts are recycled, being reabsorbed into the blood through the small intestine and then secreted again by the liver.
    Some intestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease, can damage the part of the small bowel where bile salts are reabsorbed, predisposing patients to gallstones.
    2. Blood
    Perhaps the most important body fluid of all is blood. The average adult contains about six liters of blood, which functions to transport oxygen to cells, carry metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide away from cells and transport infection-fighting white blood cells, glucose, hormones and other essential substances throughout the body. Blood also contains cell fragments called platelets and clotting factors that help to seal leaks that may develop in blood vessels.
    An adult's body contains about 25 trillion red blood cells ? about one-third of all the body's cells. Red blood cells survive on average about 120 days, which means that every second of every day, an adult human produces about two million red blood cells. If lined up end to end, the tiny blood vessels in which gas is actually exchanged, the capillaries, would reach a length of about 60,000 miles, long enough to encircle the earth more than twice.
    3. Menstrual fluid
    The average woman menstruates every 28 days over 42 years of her life, for a total of about 520 menstrual periods. The average volume of menstrual fluid is approximately 40 milliliters, or about 2.5 tablespoons in total. The fluid itself is about one-half blood, and also contains tissue from the inner lining of the uterus, mucus and secretions from the vagina. If the amount of bleeding is abnormally high, it can result in anemia, a deficit of red blood cells.
    Along with blood and semen, menstrual fluid is one of the body fluids with the strongest psychological and cultural overtones. Traditionally, the onset of menstruation is associated with the transition from childhood to adulthood, and the onset of each menstrual cycle has long provided the best evidence that a woman is not pregnant. Some societies and faith traditions have sequestered menstruating women, although menstrual fluid is no more biologically hazardous than blood.
    4. Mucus
    Mucus sounds unpleasant, but none of us would be here without it. A slippery, clear liquid produced by mucous glands, it lines the cells of the bronchi in the lungs, the stomach and intestines, the urinary and reproductive tracts, and the eyes and ears. Mucus contains a variety of important substances, including antiseptic enzymes, antibodies and mucins that give mucus its gel-like properties. The average adult produces about one liter of mucus per day.
    Mucus keeps the lining of the respiratory system from drying out and also filters out dust and infectious agents in the air we breathe. Microscopic hair-like projections from the cells lining the lung's air passages help to propel the mucus back up toward the mouth at a speed of about one millimeter per minute, where it can be swallowed or expectorated.

    Give a little. Credit: www.shutterstock.com Patients with cystic fibrosis have a genetic mutation that makes their mucus too thick, undermining this important defense against infection.
    5. Pus
    Pus sounds even more disagreeable but serves as a sign that the immune system is working. A white, yellow or brown viscous fluid that accumulates at sites of infection, pus usually consists of bacteria, white blood cells, and other proteins and cell debris. Pus under the skin is often found in a pimple, but deeper in the body a larger collection is known as an abscess. Pimples and abscesses represent the body's attempt to contain the spread of an infection.
    For many centuries, one of the dictums of the barber-surgeon was, "Where there is pus, evacuate it," thereby purging the infection from the body. Until several decades ago, drainage required a surgical procedure. Today, however, many abscesses are drained using just a needle and catheter, with ultrasound or CT imaging for guidance. This less invasive approach reduces the need for anesthesia, recovery time and cost.
    6. Semen
    Semen, the fluid released by males at ejaculation, generally contains spermatozoa, the gametes that fertilize the female egg, though this is not the case for males who have undergone the most common sterilization procedure, vasectomy.
    In addition to providing a medium through which sperm can "swim," semen also contains fructose, a sugar that nourishes the sperm, as well as alkaline secretions that help to neutralize the normally acidic environment of the vagina.
    Females are born with all the eggs they will ever have, but males continuously produce gametes from puberty onward, and the average healthy male's ejaculate of about five milliliters contains approximately 300 million spermatozoa.
    Why such large quantities are produced when only one sperm can fertilize an egg is a bit of a puzzle, but one explanation may be that the competition between sperm helps to select for the fittest.
    7. Saliva
    Saliva is secreted by salivary glands in and around the mouth. The average adult produces about a liter of saliva per day, with peak secretion at meals. Like mucus, saliva contains antibacterial enzymes and antibodies, as well as mucus itself. Saliva helps to moisten food, which is important to lubricate chewing and swallowing. It also enhances taste, because if the chemicals in food were not in a liquid medium, they could not be detected by taste receptors.
    Some of the enzymes in saliva also begin to break down substances in food, such as starches, which are broken down by amylase. Because such enzymes are generally neutralized within seconds after reaching the highly acidic secretions in the stomach, they probably function mainly to break down food particles trapped between teeth, helping to prevent cavities.
    Patients who lack sufficient saliva have much higher rates of tooth decay and gum disease.
    8. Sweat

    Engraving of the lacrimal gland. Credit: Henry Vandyke Carter, via Wikimedia Commons Sweat, like saliva, consists almost entirely of water, though it also contains minerals that account for its salty taste. Sweat production can vary widely between one-tenth of a liter and eight liters per day, and during intense exercise, an adult may produce two liters per hour or more. The body's three million sweat glands come in two types. Eccrine glands are found all over the body, with the highest density in palms and souls. Apocrine glands are located most prominently in the armpits.
    Sweat's most important role is thermoregulation, helping to cool the body when it begins to overheat. By comparison, dogs, which lack sweat glands, must pant to dissipate heat through evaporation. The brain stimulates sweating through nerves, and the rate is increased in response not just to heat but also emotional states. In contrast to heat-based sweating, the emotional type is associated with perspiration in only the palms, soles and armpits.
    9. Tears
    Tears are produced by the lacrimal glands above and lateral to the eye, and are spread over the eye's surface by blinking. They are drained into the nasal cavity, which explains why people often get a runny nose when they cry. Tears serve three functions: to lubricate the eye, to remove irritants such as smoke (and a sulfuric acid-producing chemical from cut onions) and in association with emotional states such as sorrow and joy.
    Dry eye syndrome, the most common eye disease, affects as many as one-third of elderly people, though it can occur at any time in life. The most common cause is decreased tear production, which in most patients occurs for no known reason, though it is associated with a variety of diseases and medications. The most common treatment involves, naturally enough, the use of eye drops.
    10. Urine
    The average adult produces about 1.5 liters of urine per day. Produced by the kidneys and stored by the bladder, urine contains many substances that must be removed from the body to maintain a state of health. These include the breakdown products of protein metabolism, which would become toxic if they were allowed to accumulate in the blood. Urine also serves as the principal means for removing excess salt and water from the body.
    A common diagnostic procedure in medicine is urinalysis. Finding glucose in urine could indicate that a patient is suffering from diabetes mellitus, a disease that got its name in part from the fact that the urine of diabetic patients tastes sweet. Likewise, finding bacteria suggests that the patient is suffering from a urinary tract infection. Interestingly, most of the amniotic fluid that cushions a fetus in utero is made up of urine produced by the fetus' kidneys.
    11. Vomitus
    Vomitus differs from the other body fluids discussed here because it is not produced under everyday circumstances. Everyone vomits at some point in their life in response to one of several types of stimuli. The balance center of the inner ear can induce vomiting, as in motion sickness. Another cause is irritation of the gastrointestinal tract by infections and poisons.
    In some cases, vomiting purges the body of toxins, but in other cases vomitus contains only food. In either case, the fluid is usually highly acidic, because of the acids normally secreted by the stomach. In individuals who vomit frequently, such as patients with bulimia, this acid can erode the surface of the teeth and cause dangerous changes in the pH balance of the blood. The presence of blood in vomitus is generally a sign of bleeding from the esophagus or stomach.
    This list of bodily fluids only scratches the surface. For every fluid that is regularly visible to the eye, there is another that, at least in health, we see only rarely. These include amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and the fluids that lubricate the surface of the heart and lungs, the abdominal organs and the joints, among many others. To get to know these fluids better is to gain deep insights into the biology of the human body in both health and disease.

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    Greetings PSL Brothers!

    As I'm sure we will all agree, PSL provides a great service to our community. From TRT patients to competing athletes, we all love PSL products! As I scan the community, I see many requests about supplements from guys who are just starting in this lifestyle to many veterans who still have questions about what to take to assist in maintaining great health. Listed below are some of my recommendations for overall health and wellness. Whether you're on TRT or you use various PSL products year round, there are a few supplements that I believe are mandatory to help counter some of the sides that can accompany AAS use. They are:

    Vitamin D-This vitamin is extremely important for our overall health. In fact, most people in the US are deficient in this vitamin and it can have detrimental effects on our health. I encourage each PSL athlete to ask for this test on your next round of bloodwork. In case you're not aware, Vitamin D plays a huge role in managing out Testosterone levels. See the links below for solid research on this important vitamin.
    http://www.ergo-log.com/vitamindtestosterone.html
    http://www.ergo-log.com/vitdperformance.html
    http://www.ergo-log.com/vitamindmuscle.html



    Vitamin C-This vitamin is so important to our overall health. From its immune system benefits to heart health and possible treatment for cancer, this is one vitamin that is key to our total health. See the links below for better information on this supplement.
    http://www.webmd.com/diet/the-benefits-of-vitamin-c
    http://news.sciencemag.org/chemistry/2015/11/vitamin-c-kills-tumor-cells-hard-treat-mutation


    Vitamin E-This is another vitamin that plays a strong role in our immune health and has great antioxidant abilities. See the links below for more information:
    https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/954.html
    https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/

    Thanks for your support of PSL.

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    PSL Teammates,

    I know some of you may know this but its best to go over once again as we have lots of new brothers and sisters on the team. As Vision and I have reiterated time and time again, the value of consistent bloodwork is vital to the overall health of each PSL athlete. In regards to getting bloodwork to evaluate liver health, one often overlooked test is called GGT. In my estimation, this test is the real deal in determining true liver health. While the tests of AST and ALT have their place in the scope of bloodwork, the GGT test is vital and will provide specific information to determine if our liver is truly under stress. I've listed a few links below for reading purposes to help us better understand the main role of GGT. Any AAS user should be well versed in how to interpret bloodwork. We have to be our own advocate. I've also listed a comment from a highly educated gentleman named Bill Roberts. He is well known for his expertise in the AAS field. His comments are below.

    Best Blood Tests for Evaluating Liver Function During Anabolic Steroid Use

    May 5, 2014 By Bill Roberts

    Q: ?What blood test values are the most useful for evaluating liver function during anabolic steroid cycles??
    A: While AST and ALT often get the most attention, three other values are much more useful for evaluating liver function in anabolic steroid cycles.
    GGT is present in liver cells and is released into the blood when these cells are damaged. Unlike AST and ALT, there?s little or no release of GGT into the blood when muscle cells are damaged by exercise. As a result, a GGT test remains valid even when doing intensive exercise.
    Where 17α-alkylated steroids are used, abnormally high GGT levels most commonly will be from liver damage from oral steroids. It?s a warning sign to take seriously.
    Other causes of high GGT are possible, such as chronic use of excessive alcohol, statins, aspirin, acetaminophen, or NSAID?s. GGT can also be elevated from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Further, liver disease from other causes can elevate GGT.
    A normal GGT value can completely discount any concern from elevated AST/ALT values, while a greatly elevated (twice the reference limit) value should be taken as a serious warning.
    Unfortunately, often GGT isn?t included when ordering a blood chemistry panel. But when you have the value, it can be very useful.
    Another key marker is serum bilirubin.
    Bilirubin is a breakdown product of pigmented proteins, including hemoglobin and myoglobin. Elevated bilirubin levels, beyond about twice the reference limit, can be a product of cholestatic liver disease. This is a reduction or stoppage of the flow of bile, which can be caused by use of oral anabolic steroids.
    However, abnormal bilirubin elevation can occur for reasons other than liver damage. Another possible cause is breakdown of blood cells, or hemolysis. However, if the cause is hemolysis, red blood cell count or reticulocyte count would usually be low as well.
    As with GGT, serum bilirubin is not elevated from exercise. On finding a serum bilirubin value more than twice the reference limit I?d discontinue oral steroid use. I prefer not exceeding the reference limit at all. However, quite a few individuals will somewhat exceed the reference limit even when in perfect health. For this reason, it?s not an absolute rule to never exceed the reference limit.
    Lastly, as with GGT and bilirubin, ALT is unaffected or little affected by exercise. Abnormal elevation during an anabolic steroid cycle most likely indicates liver damage. But even where significant cholestatic liver damage has already occurred, often ALT values will be only two or three times the upper limit of the reference range. So, don?t wait for a really high value to be concerned about this one.
    If all three of these are good, there almost certainly is no real liver problem.


    http://www.healthline.com/health/gam...dase#Overview1
    http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.c...erpretive/8677
    https://www.liverdoctor.com/liver/liver-function-tests/

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    Finasteride-Please Read

    Brothers,

    I came across this article while researching another topic. I understand that many athletes use this product to counter some of the side effects of certain AAS. While I understand the reasoning, you could be doing more harm than good. Read below and digest this article from Dr Mercola and Dr Andrew Rynne. I've also listed a link for you to review. Its absolutely amazing.

    http://www.propeciahelp.com/forum/

    Male Pattern Baldness and Propecia.
    http://www.andrewrynne.com/blog/2010...-and-propecia/

    Posted on October 17, 2010 by Dr. Andrew Rynne

    "I want to shout this from the rooftops. However, I will shout it into cyberspace instead.


    I want the ear of every young man on this planet who may be experiencing testosterone driven male pattern balding. Please listen to me. Do NOT under any circumstances even for one minute consider taking the testosterone-suppressing drug Proscar or Propecia or Finasteride
    to give it its chemical name for male pattern balding.

    Here?s what the manufacturers Merck say on their Patient?s Product Information leaflet about Propecia: ?In clinical studies for Propecia, a small number of men experienced certain sexual side effects, such as less desire for sex, difficulty in achieving an erection, decrease in the amount semen produced. Each of these side effects occurred in less than 2% of men and went away in men who stopped taking Propecia because of them.?

    What jumps out at you here is that figure 2%. However, even if you accept this figure as true, and personally I do not accept it, but even if you do, to the uninitiated it might seem like a low figure.
    But for 2% of men on Proscar to experience serious side effects like erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and reduced volume of semen this is actually a very high and significant figure. Remember you are dealing here with a naturally occurring normal male phenomenon called ?Male Pattern Baldness?. This is not an illness or a disease. This is a healthy normal occurrence. If in an attempt to ?cure? it, you are getting a 2% rate of serious side effects, then that quite frankly is unacceptable.
    But here is the real lie that Merck is giving you in its Patient?s Leaflet. Do you see that bit there about ?went away in men who stopped taking Propecia ? ? That is simply not true and Merck know full well that it is not true. They know it is not true because I and hundreds of other doctors and thousands of patients have told them that these side effects do not always go away when you stop taking Propecia. We continue to be ignored of course. Merck in a multi-billion multinational company.In some cases men who have taken Proscar, even for a few months, have unwittingly condemned themselves to a lifetime of Sexual Anhedonia, the most horrible and cruel or all sexual dysfunctions. I have spoken to several young men in my clinic in Kildare who continue to suffer from sexual anaesthesia and for whom all sexual pleasure and feelings have been obliterated for all time. I have felt their suffering and shared their devastation.

    If you would like to learn more about this subject then visit them on
    http://www.propeciahelp.com. Please spread the word around. Taking Propecia for balding can have utterly disastrous consequences. If you have suffered in any way as a consequence of having used Propecia or Proscar them please use the comment box below to share your story with us. We would love to hear from you."



    Baldness Drug Risks Men's Sexual Health



    Men could be risking their sexual health by taking the common anti-baldness drug Propecia (finasteride). Experts say the drug can cause serious side effects and isn't adequately labeled.
    Merck, the manufacturer of the drug, mentions problems on its Web site such as difficulty achieving an erection, but also says the problems will go away for men who stop taking the drug. However, many doctors say that complete impotence is not unusual even among men who have stopped taking the drug.
    According to BBC News:
    "Merck says they continually monitor its safety and have recently changed the labeling after reports of sexual side effects continuing after people had stopped taking the drug. They also claim those cases ... could be caused by something other than Propecia itself."
    Dr. Mercola's Comments:

    Propecia (finasteride) has been heavily promoted directly to American men in TV commercials and male-oriented magazines. Its promise is an alluring one: "Helping make hair loss history."
    Propecia claims that nine out of 10 men with mild to moderate male pattern hair loss on the top or middle front of their head will experience visible results. The drug works by reducing DHT, the most potent male hormone that is linked to shrinking hair, by blocking the enzyme 5 alpha reductase.
    But behind the images of impressive results showing men's baldness practically disappearing is a disturbing side effect that is barely talked about despite the drug's popularity: impotence.
    Propecia May Destroy Your Sex Life

    BBC News followed one story of a 26-year-old who took Propecia for male pattern baldness. He stopped taking the drug when he noticed a decreased interest in sex, then a few weeks later became impotent. Even after six months of testosterone therapy his sexual health had not been restored, and his physician suggested a penile implant as a solution.
    The drug's Web site lists sexual side effects as a possibility but downplays their severity, stating:
    "A small number of men had sexual side effects, with each occurring in less than 2% of men. These include less desire for sex, difficulty in achieving an erection, and a decrease in the amount of semen. These side effects went away in men who stopped taking Propecia because of them."
    However, many men have found that the sexual side effects do NOT go away once the drug is stopped. The problem is so common that a Web site, PropeciaHelp.com, was formed for men with persistent sexual, mental and physical side effects that have continued despite their having stopped taking the drug.
    "Post-Finasteride Syndrome" More Common than Previously Recognized

    There are currently over 1,000 members on PropeciaHelp.com, many of whom believe they suffer from Post-Finasteride Syndrome, a condition of permanent sexual, mental and physical side effects that do not resolve after quitting the drug, and most often are accompanied by an acquired form of secondary hypogonadism (when the sex glands produce little or no hormones).
    As their Web site states:
    "Most in the medical community are unaware of this possibility, dismiss such claims, or do not care to investigate further as to how or why this irreversible 5AR inhibitor is leaving some men with a post-drug endocrine system crash, loss of androgenic action in the male body, and a common set of hypogonadal symptoms
    ... or why after quitting, those with permanent issues often find their Testosterone, LH & FSH hormone levels drop through the floor (levels typically only seen during male Andropause in old age, amongst other hormonal imbalances), and acquire an extremely difficult to treat form of secondary hypogonadism.
    To date there has been no clinical or medical research into this serious adverse post-drug reaction.
    For those already suffering, what is ultimately required is a clinical, controlled study in the lab comparing us to those who never took the drug, to ascertain the root cause of our condition, why our bodies seem to no longer respond to androgens correctly in many cases, and why we continue to experience hypogonadal symptoms and irreversible side effects... with the ultimate goal of finding a cure to reverse this nightmarish syndrome, once and for all."
    So for men, taking Propecia may very well lead to permanent damage to your sexual health, and no one knows who will be impacted, whether or not it will be permanent, or why.
    And as for women, the drug can also have a devastating effect on a developing baby's sex organs, so much so that Merck, the drug's maker, warns women who are or may become pregnant to not even handle broken tablets:
    "Women who are or may potentially be pregnant must not use Propecia and should not handle crushed or broken Propecia tablets because the active ingredient may cause abnormalities of a male baby's sex organs."
    If You Have Male Pattern Baldness, Make Sure You're Doing This ?

    The conventional medical dogma says that male pattern baldness is a genetic condition and there is not much you can do to alter it -- but I don't believe that for a moment. While it is clear genetics are involved, the expression of your genetic predisposition (in other words, whether or not you actually lose your hair) is largely environmentally induced.
    So what does this mean for male pattern baldness?
    There is strong evidence that early male-pattern baldness could be a clinical marker of insulin resistance, a condition in which you lose your sensitivity to insulin, resulting in excess blood sugar.
    As I've explained in numerous articles, insulin resistance is the root cause of most chronic disease, and maintaining proper insulin regulation is a primary factor of good health.
    In a nutshell, you do that by:


    1. Exercising regularly
    2. Avoiding sugar/fructose and grains (including organic whole grains as they too will quickly convert to sugar in your body and lead to insulin resistance)


    I truly believe that had I known this information 20 years ago, I would still have a full head of hair. Unfortunately, for many years I was a certified carb addict and consumed an excess of high-grain foods -- which are a disaster for my protein nutritional type.
    So, guys, if you're experiencing hair loss or are worried that you might, cut down or eliminate the grains and sugars from your diet. Even better, find out your nutritional type and begin eating the foods that best support it, as this will give you optimal nourishment for your hair growth and your entire body.
    Are There Any Natural Treatments for Impotency?

    If you're suffering sexual side effects like impotency from Propecia or any other cause, there are some natural remedies you can try.
    Herbs like Panax ginseng and Maca root have been used for centuries as libido-boosting tonics. And the amino acid L-arginine has a beneficial influence on blood vessel health, which indirectly can benefit erectile dysfunction by improving cardiovascular function.
    L-arginine appears to help with erectile dysfunction by enhancing the action of nitric oxide, which in turn helps relax your blood vessels, including those supplying blood to your penis. As blood vessels in your penis dilate, it increases blood flow, which helps maintain an erection. (This is also how drugs like Viagra work.)
    Of course, L-arginine is not a magic potion that will "cure" impotency overnight; some studies have found its effectiveness alone is on par with a placebo. But several studies have concluded that L-arginine in combination with other herbs is a remarkably effective treatment for mild to moderate ED.
    In men, L-arginine combined with pycnogenol (a plant extract from the bark of a French maritime pine tree) provided "significant improvement in sexual function in men with ED without any side effects," according to the researchers of one study.
    And the combination of 6 grams of L-arginine with 6 mg yohimbine was found to be "a promising addition to first-line therapy for ED," according to a pilot study published in the journal European Urology.
    Other supplements that could be worthwhile are choline and vitamin B5.
    The neurotransmitter that triggers sexual messages in your brain, whether you're male or female, is acetylcholine (ACH). With too little ACH, sexual activity goes down. One way to safely and effectively enhance your ACH levels is to take choline supplements (1,000-3,000 mg) and vitamin B5 (500-1,500 mg).
    You will also want to be sure your overall lifestyle is a healthy one, as the habits below will further help to enhance your sexual health:




    Avoid smoking and excessive drinking

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    Brothers,

    I was researching the other day and came across this item. After checking several of my products at home, I found the following item listed as an ingredient: Carrageenan

    After further reading, I've decided to only use products that do not contain this ingredient. Listed below is an article with various research studies. Please consider taking the time to read this.

    http://blog.healthkismet.com/carrage...h-inflammation

    http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA40118...enan-Safe.html

    http://www.unsymmetrical.com/2006/06...arrageenan.php

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    Brothers,

    As you know, I really enjoy the science behind AAS. Below, I've listed some study links as well as posted a link to a drug bank website which provides interesting data on each compound. Today's compound is Deca-Durabolin(Nandrolone Decanote).

    http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB08804

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494628

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767536

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    Brothers,

    This is an excellent read.






    A Harvard expert shares his thoughts on testosterone-replacement therapy

    An interview with Abraham Morgentaler, M.D.
    It could be said that testosterone is what makes men, men. It gives them their characteristic deep voices, large muscles, and facial and body hair, distinguishing them from women. It stimulates the growth of the genitals at puberty, plays a role in sperm production, fuels libido, and contributes to normal erections. It also fosters the production of red blood cells, boosts mood, and aids cognition.
    Over time, the testicular ?machinery? that makes testosterone gradually becomes less effective, and testosterone levels start to fall, by about 1% a year, beginning in the 40s. As men get into their 50s, 60s, and beyond, they may start to have signs and symptoms of low testosterone such as lower sex drive and sense of vitality, erectile dysfunction, decreased energy, reduced muscle mass and bone density, and anemia. Taken together, these signs and symptoms are often called hypogonadism (?hypo? meaning low functioning and ?gonadism? referring to the testicles). Researchers estimate that the condition affects anywhere from two to six million men in the United States. Yet it is an underdiagnosed problem, with only about 5% of those affected receiving treatment.
    Studies have shown that testosterone-replacement therapy may offer a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism, including improved libido, mood, cognition, muscle mass, bone density, and red blood cell production. But little consensus exists on what constitutes low testosterone, when testosterone supplementation makes sense, or what risks patients face. Much of the current debate focuses on the long-held belief that testosterone may stimulate prostate cancer.
    Dr. Abraham Morgentaler, an associate professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School and the director of Men?s Health Boston, specializes in treating prostate diseases and male sexual and reproductive difficulties. He has developed particular expertise in treating low testosterone levels. In this interview, Dr. Morgentaler shares his views on current controversies, the treatment strategies he uses with his own patients, and why he thinks experts should reconsider the possible link between testosterone-replacement therapy and prostate cancer.
    Symptoms and diagnosis

    What signs and symptoms of low testosterone prompt the average man to see a doctor?
    As a urologist, I tend to see men because they have sexual complaints. The primary hallmark of low testosterone is low sexual desire or libido, but another can be erectile dysfunction, and any man who complains of erectile dysfunction should get his testosterone level checked. Men may experience other symptoms, such as more difficulty achieving an orgasm, less-intense orgasms, a smaller amount of fluid from ejaculation, and a feeling of numbness in the penis when they see or experience something that would normally be arousing.
    The more of these symptoms there are, the more likely it is that a man has low testosterone. Many physicians tend to dismiss these ?soft symptoms? as a normal part of aging, but they are often treatable and reversible by normalizing testosterone levels.
    Aren?t those the same symptoms that men have when they?re treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH?
    Not exactly. There are a number of drugs that may lessen sex drive, including the BPH drugs finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart). Those drugs can also decrease the amount of the ejaculatory fluid, no question. But a reduction in orgasm intensity usually does not go along with treatment for BPH. Erectile dysfunction does not usually go along with it either, though certainly if somebody has less sex drive or less interest, it?s more of a challenge to get a good erection.
    How do you determine whether a man is a candidate for testosterone-replacement therapy?
    There are two ways that we determine whether somebody has low testosterone. One is a blood test and the other is by characteristic symptoms and signs, and the correlation between those two methods is far from perfect. Generally men with the lowest testosterone have the most symptoms and men with highest testosterone have the least. But there are some men who have low levels of testosterone in their blood and have no symptoms.
    Looking purely at the biochemical numbers, The Endocrine Society* considers low testosterone to be a total testosterone level of less than 300 ng/dl, and I think that?s a reasonable guide. But no one quite agrees on a number. It?s not like diabetes, where if your fasting glucose is above a certain level, they?ll say, ?Okay, you?ve got it.? With testosterone, that break point is not quite as clear.
    *Note: The Endocrine Society publishes clinical practice guidelines with recommendations for who should and shouldn?t receive testosterone therapy. See ?Endocrine Society recommendations summarized.? For a complete copy of the guidelines, log on to www.endo-society.org.
    Is total testosterone the right thing to be measuring? Or should we be measuring something else?
    Well, this is another area of confusion and great debate, but I don?t think it?s as confusing as it appears to be in the literature. When most doctors learned about testosterone in medical school, they learned about total testosterone, or all the testosterone in the body. But about half of the testosterone that?s circulating in the bloodstream is not available to the cells. It?s tightly bound to a carrier molecule called sex hormone?binding globulin, which we abbreviate as SHBG.
    The biologically available part of total testosterone is called free testosterone, and it?s readily available to the cells. Almost every lab has a blood test to measure free testosterone. Even though it?s only a small fraction of the total, the free testosterone level is a pretty good indicator of low testosterone. It?s not perfect, but the correlation is greater than with total testosterone.
    Endocrine Society recommendations summarized

    This professional organization recommends testosterone therapy for men who have both

    • low levels of testosterone in the blood (less than 300 ng/dl)
    • symptoms of low testosterone.

    Therapy is not recommended for men who have

    • prostate or breast cancer
    • a nodule on the prostate that can be felt during a DRE
    • a PSA greater than 3 ng/ml without further evaluation
    • a hematocrit greater than 50% or thick, viscous blood
    • untreated obstructive sleep apnea
    • severe lower urinary tract symptoms
    • class III or IV heart failure.
    Do time of day, diet, or other factors affect testosterone levels?
    For years, the recommendation has been to get a testosterone value early in the morning because levels start to drop after 10 or 11 a.m. But the data behind that recommendation were drawn from healthy young men. Two recent studies showed little change in blood testosterone levels in men 40 and older over the course of the day. One reported no change in average testosterone until after 2 p.m. Between 2 and 6 p.m., it went down by 13%, a modest amount, and probably not enough to influence diagnosis. Most guidelines still say it?s important to do the test in the morning, but for men 40 and above, it probably doesn?t matter much, as long as they get their blood drawn before 5 or 6 p.m.
    There are some very interesting findings about diet. For example, it appears that individuals who have a diet low in protein have lower testosterone levels than men who consume more protein. But diet hasn?t been studied thoroughly enough to make any clear recommendations.
    Exogenous vs. endogenous testosterone

    In this article, testosterone-replacement therapy refers to the treatment of hypogonadism with exogenous testosterone ? testosterone that is manufactured outside the body. Depending on the formulation, treatment can cause skin irritation, breast enlargement and tenderness, sleep apnea, acne, reduced sperm count, increased red blood cell count, and other side effects.
    Preliminary research has shown that clomiphene citrate (Clomid), a drug generally prescribed to stimulate ovulation in women struggling with infertility, can foster the production of natural testosterone, termed endogenous testosterone, in men. In a recent prospective study, 36 hypogonadal men took a daily dose of clomiphene citrate for at least three months. Within four to six weeks, all of the men had heightened levels of testosterone; none reported any side effects during the year they were followed.
    Because clomiphene citrate is not approved by the FDA for use in men, little information exists about the long-term effects of taking it (including the risk of developing prostate cancer) or whether it is more effective at boosting testosterone than exogenous formulations. But unlike exogenous testosterone, clomiphene citrate preserves ? and possibly enhances ? sperm production. That makes drugs like clomiphene citrate one of only a few choices for men with low testosterone who want to father children.
    Formulations

    What forms of testosterone-replacement therapy are available?*
    The oldest form is an injection, which we still use because it?s inexpensive and because we reliably get good testosterone levels in nearly everybody. The disadvantage is that a man needs to come in every few weeks to get a shot. A roller-coaster effect can also occur as blood testosterone levels peak and then return to baseline. [See ?Exogenous vs. endogenous testosterone,? above.]
    Topical therapies help maintain a more uniform level of blood testosterone. The first form of topical therapy was a patch, but it has a very high rate of skin irritation. In one study, as many as 40% of men who used the patch developed a red area on their skin. That limits its use.
    The most commonly used testosterone preparation in the United States ? and the one I start almost everyone off with ? is a topical gel. There are two brands: AndroGel and Testim. The gel comes in miniature tubes or in a special dispenser, and you rub it on your shoulders or upper arms once a day. Based on my experience, it tends to be absorbed to good levels in about 80% to 85% of men, but that leaves a substantial number who don?t absorb enough for it to have a positive effect. [For specifics on various formulations, see table below.]
    Are there any drawbacks to using gels? How long does it take for them to work?
    Men who start using the gels have to come back in to have their testosterone levels measured again to make sure they?re absorbing the right amount. Our target is the mid to upper range of normal, which usually means around 500 to 600 ng/dl. The concentration of testosterone in the blood actually goes up quite quickly, within a few doses. I usually measure it after two weeks, though symptoms may not change for a month or two.
    Comparison of forms of testosterone therapy
    Formulation
    Generic (brand)
    Regimen Advantages Disadvantages
    Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone cypionate (Depo-testosterone) injections 200 mg every 2?4 weeks (testosterone enanthate); 100 or 200 mg every 2?4 weeks (testosterone cypionate) Relatively inexpensive Peaks and valleys in blood testosterone levels; frequent office visits for injections
    Scrotal testosterone patch (Testoderm) One 6-mg patch/day May be less irritating to skin than nonscrotal patches Scrotum must be shaved in order for patch to adhere to skin
    Nonscrotal testosterone patch (Testoderm TTS and Androderm) One or two patches/day, depending on strength (2.5?5 mg/patch) Ease of application; mimics normal daily rise and fall of testosterone May need two patches a day; can cause skin irritation
    Testosterone gels (AndroGel and Testim) 5?10 mg/day Ease of application; generally well tolerated by skin Not all patients absorb it well; potential to transfer to others through skin-to-skin contact soon after application; relatively expensive
    Methyltestosterone (Testred) and fluoxymesterone (Halotestin) pills Not recommended None Can cause liver toxicity
    Buccal testosterone (Striant) 30-mg tablet twice a day; applied to gums More effective at raising testosterone levels than skin patches May cause gum or mouth irritation, pain, and tenderness; bitter taste
    Injectable testosterone undecanoate (Nebido/Aveed) 1,000 mg to start; 1,000 mg at 6 weeks; 1,000 mg every 12 weeks thereafter Needs to be administered only four times a year Under FDA review and not currently available in the United States
    What about pills?
    There are pills in the United States for testosterone supplementation, but their use is strongly discouraged because they cause significant liver toxicity. A safe oral formulation called testosterone undecanoate is available in Canada and in Europe, but not in the United States. What?s quite exciting is that an injectable version of testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) was submitted to the FDA for approval in August 2007. (It?s already approved in many other countries.) It lasts for 12 weeks, so a patient could come in and get a shot about four times a year. [Editor?s note: In December 2009, the brand name of the drug in the United States was changed to Aveed. As of January 2011, it was still awaiting FDA approval.]
    Testosterone?s impact on brain, bone, and muscle

    Cherrier MM, Asthana MD, Plymate S, et al. Testosterone Supplementation Improves Spatial and Verbal Memory in Healthy Older Men. Neurology 2001;57:80?88. PMID: 11445632.
    Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Greco EA, et al. Effects of Testosterone on Body Composition, Bone Metabolism and Serum Lipid Profile in Middle-aged Men: A Meta-analysis. Clinical Endocrinology 2005;63:280?93. PMID:16117815.
    Liu PY, Swerdloff RS, Veldhuis JD. Clinical Review 171: The Rationale, Efficacy and Safety of Androgen Therapy in Older Men: Future Research and Current Practice Recommendations. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004; 89:4789?96. PMID: 15472164.
    Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Metter EJ, et al. Longitudinal Assessment of Serum Free Testosterone Concentration Predicts Memory Performance and Cognitive Status in Elderly Men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002;87:5001?7. PMID: 12414864.
    Wang C, Cunningham G, Dobs A, et al. Long-term Testosterone Gel (AndroGel) Treatment Maintains Beneficial Effects on Sexual Function and Mood, Lean and Fat Mass, and Bone Mineral Density in Hypogonadal Men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004;89:2085?98. PMID: 15126525.
    Other than improvement in sexual symptoms, what are some of the potential benefits of testosterone-replacement therapy?
    Some studies have looked at testosterone therapy and cognition. Although the findings weren?t definitive, there was some evidence of cognitive improvement. Other studies have shown that it improves mood. Testosterone therapy has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and in increasing muscle bulk and strength. [See ?Testosterone?s impact on brain, bone, and muscle,? above.]
    Risks and precautions

    What risks do you consider when prescribing testosterone-replacement therapy?
    When patients ask about risks, I remind them that they already have testosterone in their system and that the goal of testosterone treatment is to restore its concentration back to what it was 10 or 15 years previously. And the molecule itself that we give is identical to the one that their bodies make naturally, so in theory, everything should be hunky-dory. But in practice, there are always some curveballs.
    For example, testosterone can increase the hematocrit, the percentage of red blood cells in the bloodstream. If the hematocrit goes up too high, we worry about the blood becoming too viscous or thick, possibly predisposing someone to stroke or clotting events. Although, frankly, in a review that I wrote in the New England Journal of Medicine* where we reviewed as much of this as we could, we found no cases of stroke or severe clotting related to testosterone therapy. Nevertheless, the risk exists, so we want to be careful about giving testosterone to men who already have a high hematocrit, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or those who have a red-blood-cell disorder.
    Although it?s rare to see swelling caused by fluid retention, physicians need to be careful when prescribing testosterone to men with compromised kidney or liver function, or some degree of congestive heart failure. It can also increase the oiliness of the skin, so that some men get acne or pimples, but that?s quite uncommon, as are sleep apnea and gynecomastia (breast enlargement).
    *Source: New England Journal of Medicine 2004;350:482?92. PMID: 14749457.
    What about the risk of developing prostate cancer?
    I think that the biggest hurdle for most physicians prescribing testosterone is the fear that they?re going to promote prostate cancer. [See ?Incongruous findings,? below.] That?s because more than six decades ago, it was shown that if you lowered testosterone in men whose prostate cancer had metastasized, their condition improved. (It became a standard therapy that we still use today for men with advanced prostate cancer. We call it androgen deprivation or androgen-suppressive therapy.) The thinking became that if lowering testosterone makes prostate cancer disappear, at least for a while, then raising it must make prostate cancer grow. But even though it?s been a widely held belief for six decades, no one has found any additional evidence to support the theory.
    Haven?t there been any studies that follow men who go on testosterone-replacement therapy to see what their rate of cancer is compared with that in men who are not on it?
    As with a number of treatments or medicines that have been around for a long, long time, it hasn?t been scrutinized like a new drug would be. And although they?ve been discussed, there aren?t any large-scale, randomized controlled clinical trials of testosterone-replacement therapy under way. [See ?A male equivalent to the Women?s Health Initiative?? below.]
    There have been a number of smaller studies on men receiving testosterone-replacement therapy, and if you look at the results cumulatively, the rate of prostate cancer in these men was about 1% per year. If you look at men who show up for prostate cancer screening, same sort of age population, the rate tends to be about the same. You have to be cautious in comparing studies and combining the results, but there?s no signal in these results that testosterone-replacement therapy creates an unexpectedly high rate of prostate cancer.
    We also have epidemiologic studies, like the Physicians? Health Study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, and the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, that include tens of thousands of men who are followed for 5, 10, 15, or even 20 years. At the end of the study period, the researchers see who developed prostate cancer and who didn?t. They can then look at blood samples taken at the start of the study to see if, for example, the group that got prostate cancer had a higher level of testosterone over all. About 500,000 men have been entered in some 20 trials of this type around the world. Not one of those studies has shown a definitive correlation between prostate cancer and total testosterone. Three or four have shown weak associations, but none of those have been confirmed in subsequent studies.
    Another point I?d like to make for people worried about a link between high testosterone and prostate cancer is that it just doesn?t make sense. Prostate cancer becomes more prevalent in men as they age, and that?s also when their testosterone levels decline. We almost never see it in men in their peak testosterone years, in their 20s for instance. We know from autopsy studies that 8% of men in their 20s already have tiny prostate cancers, so if testosterone really made prostate cancer grow so rapidly ? we used to talk about it like it was pouring gasoline on a fire ? we should see some appreciable rate of prostate cancer in men in their 20s. We don?t. So, I?m no longer worried that giving testosterone to men will make their hidden cancer grow, because I?m convinced that it doesn?t happen.
    Can testosterone worsen BPH?
    The evidence shows that testosterone treatment does not change the strength or rate of urine flow, does not change the ability to empty the bladder, and does not change other symptoms such as frequency or urgency of urination, as assessed by the American Urological Association Symptom Score or the International Prostate Symptom Score. I?ve had a couple of patients over the years who had some worsening of urinary symptoms with testosterone, but that?s rare, even with long-term use.
    Incongruous findings

    Studies have come to conflicting conclusions about whether high levels of testosterone increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. A sampling of studies that have helped drive the controversy follows.
    Increases in cancer risk
    Parsons JK, Carter HB, Platz EA, et al. Serum Testosterone and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: Potential Implications for Testosterone Therapy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 2005;14:2257?60. PMID: 16172240.
    Shaneyfelt T, Husein R, Bubley G, et al. Hormonal Predictors of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2000;18:847?53. PMID: 10673527.
    No effect or decreases in cancer risk
    Eaton NE, Reeves GK, Appleby PB, et al. Endogenous Sex Hormones and Prostate Cancer: A Quantitative Review of Prospective Studies. British Journal of Cancer 1999;80:930?34. PMID: 10362098.
    Mohr BA, Feldman HA, Kalish LA, et al. Are Serum Hormones Associated with the Risk of Prostate Cancer? Prospective Results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Urology 2001;57:930?35. PMID: 11337297.
    Morgentaler A. Testosterone and Prostate Cancer: An Historical Perspective on a Modern Myth. European Urology 2006;50:935?39. PMID: 16875775.
    Mixed findings
    Slater S, Oliver RT. Testosterone: Its Role in the Development of Prostate Cancer and Potential Risks from Use as Hormone Replacement Therapy. Drugs and Aging 2000;17:431?39. PMID: 11200304.
    What?s your strategy for the concomitant administration of erectile dysfunction drugs?
    My preference is to start men on testosterone, for a couple of reasons. First, if a man has successful return of his own erections, it?s like a home run for him. He doesn?t have to take a pill in anticipation of having sex. He can have sex whenever he wants. Second, the benefits of testosterone-replacement therapy often go way beyond erectile dysfunction. That may be what brought the patient into the office originally, but then he comes back saying how much better he feels in general, how much more energetic and motivated he is, how his drives on the golf course seem to be going farther, and how his mood is better.
    But if somebody fails testosterone therapy, meaning that their erections aren?t any better, I?ve said, ?Well, let?s stop the testosterone and try one of the PDE5, or phosphodiesterase type 5, inhibitors ? sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra).? A lot of patients then say, ?Well, actually, I?d like to stay on the testosterone. True, it?s not helping my erections, but I?m more turned on, and I?m getting these other benefits.? So we often continue the testosterone and add a PDE5 inhibitor.
    There?s a significant failure rate of the PDE5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction, something on the order of 25% to 50%, depending on the underlying condition. It turns out that a third of those men will have adequate erections with testosterone-replacement therapy alone and another third will have adequate erections with the pills and testosterone combined. There?s still a third who don?t respond, but normalizing their testosterone level has definitely rescued many men who had failed on PDE5 inhibitors.
    A male equivalent to the Women?s Health Initiative?

    In 2002, the federally sponsored Women?s Health Initiative (WHI) stopped its hormone replacement therapy (HRT) trial (estrogen plus progestin), which included more than 16,000 women, three years early because those taking the pills had an increased risk of developing breast cancer and blood clots, and an increased risk of suffering a stroke or heart attack than those taking a placebo. The findings ran counter to the long-held belief that HRT could preserve health ? and trim heart-disease risk in women.
    Unlike previous studies of HRT, which had been observational in nature, the WHI was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The gold standard of scientific inquiry, these trials can conclusively test theories and assess cause and effect.
    To date, no large, double-blind, randomized controlled studies of a link between testosterone treatment and prostate cancer have been completed. In its 2004 report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee studying the need for clinical trials of testosterone-replacement therapy noted that only 31 placebo-controlled studies had been done in older men, with the largest one enrolling just 108 participants. Most of these studies lasted only six months.
    The IOM report estimated that a study of whether there is an increased risk of prostate cancer in men on testosterone therapy might require following 5,000 men for three to five years. Before launching such an endeavor, the report recommended more firmly establishing the effectiveness of testosterone-replacement therapy, saying that studies of long-term risks and benefits should be conducted only after short-term efficacy has been proven. That means the male equivalent of the WHI remains far off.
    Monitoring and testing

    What?s your thinking on performing a prostate biopsy before prescribing testosterone therapy?
    I started doing prostate biopsies before putting men on testosterone therapy because the fear had always been that a hidden cancer might grow due to increased testosterone. It was also believed that low testosterone was protective. Well, we found prostate cancer in one of the first men with low testosterone we biopsied, even though his PSA level and digital rectal exam (DRE) were normal. As we did more of these, we found more and more cases, about one out of seven, despite normal DRE and normal PSA. When we had data for 77 men and the cancer rate was about the same, 14%, the Journal of the American Medical Association published our findings. At the time, that rate of prostate cancer in men with normal PSA was several times higher than anything published previously, and it approximated the risk of men who had an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE. That was in 1996.
    In a subsequent study of 345 men with normal PSA and low testosterone, we found the cancer rate was similar: 15%. And we had a large enough group to look at the impact of testosterone on cancer risk. For men whose total testosterone or free testosterone value was in the lowest third, the odds of having a positive biopsy were double the odds in the rest of the men. That?s the first evidence that low testosterone may be an independent predictor for the development of prostate cancer.
    That would argue for doing a routine prostate biopsy on anyone considering testosterone-replacement therapy.
    It?s not universally accepted, but that?s what I do. Several recent studies have shown that low testosterone is associated with higher Gleason scores, with advanced-stage prostate cancer, and, even worse, with shorter survival times. [See ?Low testosterone, PSA, and prostate cancer,? below.]
    What recommendations do you have for monitoring once testosterone therapy begins?
    The general recommendation is that men 50 and older who are candidates for testosterone therapy should have a DRE and a PSA test. If either is abnormal, the man should be evaluated further for prostate cancer, which is what we do with everybody whether they have low testosterone or not. That means a biopsy. But if all of those results are normal, then we can initiate testosterone therapy. The monitoring that needs to happen for men who begin testosterone therapy is really very simple: DRE, PSA, and a blood test for hematocrit or hemoglobin, once or twice in the first year and then yearly after that, which is pretty much what we recommend for most men over age 50 anyway.
    Low testosterone, PSA, and prostate cancer

    Morgentaler A, Rhoden EL. Prevalence of Prostate Cancer Among Hypogonadal Men with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/dL or less. Urology 2006;68:1263?67. PMID: 17169647.
    Morgentaler A, Bruning CO 3rd, DeWolf WC. Occult Prostate Cancer in Men with Low Serum Testosterone Levels. Journal of the American Medical Association 1996;276:1904?6. PMID: 8968017.
    Massengill JC, Sun L, Moul JW, et al. Pretreatment Total Testosterone Level Predicts Pathological Stage in Patient with Localized Prostate Cancer Treated with Radical Prostatectomy. Journal of Urology 2003;169:1670?5. PMID: 12686805.
    Isom-Batz G, Bianco FJ Jr, Kattan MW, et al. Testosterone as a Predictor of Pathological Stage in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Journal of Urology 2005;173:1935?37. PMID: 15879785.
    Future directions

    What changes do you see taking place on the testosterone front over the next five years?
    I think that the importance of testosterone for cardiovascular health is going to be increasingly recognized. In the past, because men die of heart attacks more often than women and men have more testosterone, the fear has been that testosterone causes heart problems. But every single study of whether testosterone is bad for the heart has been negative, and what people haven?t pointed out in most of those negative studies is that there may be a beneficial effect.
    I think we?ll also find out in five years that there very well may be general health benefits of having normal testosterone compared to low testosterone. There are growing data for all-cause mortality that men who have low testosterone die earlier than those who have normal testosterone. A study by the Veterans Administration reported about a year ago showed low testosterone levels were associated with a dramatically increased mortality rate. It?s hard to know why that is, but I think we?ll be focused on that in the coming years.
    Any closing thoughts?
    I think that low testosterone is under-recognized, its effects are greatly underappreciated, and its diagnosis isn?t readily understood. This is an area that has tremendous research potential in the coming years.*
    *Note: Dr. Morgentaler presents a compelling argument in favor of testosterone-replacement therapy for men with hypogonadism. However, his views are not universally accepted, and evidence on both sides of the debate is limited.

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    Another great read about TRT and Prostate cancer.

    http://itr8.com/hosted/b2bcast/scher...orgentaler.pdf

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    Guys,

    This is an interesting study on Primobolan(Metenolone). If you have some time, please read up on a procedure called cardiomyoplasty.


    Anabolic steroids (metenolone) improve muscle performance and hemodynamic characteristics in cardiomyoplasty.

    Fritzsche D1, Krakor R, Asmussen G, Widera R, Caffier P, Berkei J, Cesla M.
    Author information


    • 1Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Leipzig, Germany.




    Abstract

    The loss of force and mass in the conditioned latissimus dorsi muscle are principal reasons for the poor improvement in hemodynamic functioning attained by cardiomyoplasty. Using 24 sheep, we investigated the effect of anabolic steroids on the hemodynamic, histologic, and myophysiologic characteristics in the setting of cardiomyoplasty. In 12 of the animals (group A), the latissimus dorsi muscles were electrically conditioned with an Itrel pulse generator; in the remaining 12 animals (group B), the electrical conditioning was combined with the administration of an anabolic hormone (metenolone; 100 mg/week). The hemodynamic measurements were performed during isolated perfusion of the subclavian artery (maintenance of pressure in the muscles), while all other circulation variables were held at the exact and reproducible value of zero by inducing ventricular fibrillation. Maximum force and muscle mass showed a significant increase in group B (maximum force: group A, 4.23 +/- 0.55 kp, and group B, 6.0 +/- 3.14 kp; muscle mass: group A, +11.07% +/- 1.06%, and group B, +79.9% +/- 40.8%). The ratio of type I to type II fibers after 12 weeks was 65.2% to 34.8% in group A and 96.7% to 3.3% in group B, as opposed to 19.9% to 80.1% in the control group. No side effects of the anabolic steroids were observed during the experiment. In the hemodynamic studies, we were able to demonstrate a further significant increase in the left ventricular pressure, fractional fiber shortening value, ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, and stroke work when using conditioned latissimus dorsi muscles that were additionally treated with metenolone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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